Indian Journal of Dermatology
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   2021| May-June  | Volume 66 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 13, 2021

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Dermatological manifestations associated with COVID-19 infection
Maitreyee Panda, Siddhartha Dash, Biswanath Behera, Abheek Sil
May-June 2021, 66(3):237-245
The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has infected millions in recent years and is a major public health concern. Various cutaneous manifestations of the COVID-19 disease have been identified. Skin is a mirror to internal disease and can be the presenting sign of COVID-19 disease. Several cutaneous manifestations can indicate severe COVID-19 disease. In the present scenario, physicians should know the various cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 disease for early diagnosis and proper management of the disease.
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COVID-19 and dermatology
Anupam Das
May-June 2021, 66(3):229-230
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Virology and etiopathogenesis of COVID-19 with special reference to cutaneous implications
Rashmi Sarkar, Shashank Bhargava, Vibhu Mendiratta
May-June 2021, 66(3):231-236
Severe Acute Respiratory Virus Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has got its name Corona from Latin meaning “crown.” It has crown-like spikes present on the surface, which encloses the RNA, genetic material of this deadly virus. The virus attacks pneumocytes after binding with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of the cell surface, which ultimately leads to chemotaxis followed by leukocyte infiltration, increased permeability of blood vessels and alveolar walls, and decreased surfactant in the lung leading to various symptoms. Skin provides a window to the internal changes of the body and also to mechanisms that are not readily visible. Commonly observed skin manifestations include vesicular lesions, maculopapular exanthema, urticarial eruptions, livedo or necrosis, and other forms of vasculitis, chilblain-like lesions. The skin lesions are attributed to either the virus directly affecting the skin or interferon dysregulation due to viral RNA or vascular involvement associated with alteration in coagulation or drug-induced skin manifestations. Observation of skin involvement and the vasculature due to SARS-CoV-2 illustrates the need for a precise stratification and differential diagnostic valuation so that the mechanisms of this novel virus are clearer for better management of the condition in the future. Vascular skin lesions are not seen in all the patients of COVID, but certain lesions should definitely alarm us to evaluate for coagulation abnormalities, complement levels, and skin biopsy, especially in critically ill patients. This review attempts to outline the pathogen briefly and the pathomechanism behind the development of various cutaneous manifestations.
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Skin and metabolic syndrome: An evidence based comprehensive review
Farhat Fatima, Anupam Das, Piyush Kumar, Debatri Datta
May-June 2021, 66(3):302-307
Metabolic syndrome is currently considered to be a global epidemic, causing a significant increase in the cost of health care, apart from deteriorating the quality of life. Skin serves as a mirror of underlying metabolic sinister. Various dermatological conditions like psoriasis, acanthosis nigricans, lichen planus, acne vulgaris, acrochordons, atopic dermatitis, etc. have been reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome. We hereby present an evidence-based review of the various dermatological conditions and their association with the development of metabolic syndrome.
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Clinical dermatology and COVID-19 pandemic: Narrative review
Dillon Mintoff, Manas Chatterjee, Indrashis Podder, Alexa Shipman, Anupam Das
May-June 2021, 66(3):246-255
The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has radical repercussions on every aspect of medical science, including dermatology. The magnitude of the impact on clinical dermatology cannot be overemphasized. Dermatologists have been forced to modify and reconsider the way they consult patients. Teledermatology has come up in a big way, with most of the clinicians resorting to technology and software-based consultations. Management of different dermatological conditions like papulosquamous disorders, vesiculobullous disorders, malignancies, etc., needs to be modified as per the different recommendations proposed by expert panels. This review is an attempt to highlight the impact of this destructive pandemic on various aspects of clinical dermatology.
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Real-world effectiveness and safety of dupilumab for the treatment of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in Indian patients: A multi centric retrospective study
Sandipan Dhar, Abhishek De, Sahana M Srinivas
May-June 2021, 66(3):297-301
Introduction: Treatment of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) is a real challenge for the dermatologists. Dupilumab is the first targeted biologic therapy approved for the treatment of children and adults with moderate-to-severe AD. The efficacy and safety of dupilumab in Indian patients is limited to date, it is necessary to assess the performance of this treatment in real clinical practice in the Indian context. Methodology: Patients from three centers of India, two from Kolkata and one from Bangalore were included in the study for retrospective chart analysis. Efficacy was assessed by comparing the SCORAD and EASI and impact on quality of life was assessed by DLQI scores. All patients received standard doses of Dupilumab. Any side effect of the treatment was noted in the bi-weekly follow-up visit. Results: Twenty-five patients who were treated with dupilumab for at least 6 months were retrospectively included to study. The mean EASI score improved from 19.48 at baseline to 4.84 at six months. Seventeen patients (68%) achieved EASI 75 (≥75% improvement from baseline) at the end of 6 months of treatment. All these patients were earlier treated with at least one systemic immunomodulator without any significant improvement. The mean SCORAD score also improved with dupilumab treatment from 37.32 at baseline to 8.04 at six months. The improvement were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). The quality of life also improved significantly (P < 0.001) from a baseline mean of 17.08 at baseline to 6.52 at 6 months. Conclusions: We observed significant efficacy, tolerability, and safety of dupilumab in Indian patients with AD in a real-world setting, which was similar to that shown in clinical trials in the western populations.
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Correlation of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin d and interleukin-17 levels with disease severity in acne vulgaris
Ajeet Singh, Ananta Khurana, Kabir Sardana, Niharika Dixit, Anubhuti Chitkara
May-June 2021, 66(3):291-296
Background: The association of Vitamin D (vit.D) and Interleukin 17 (IL-17) with acne vulgaris is uncertain in spite of induction of IL-17 by Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and the role of vit.D in various inflammatory skin disorders including acne. The objectives of present study were to evaluate the levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] and IL-17 in acne patients and age- and sex-matched controls and to compare them with the severity of acne as measured by Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Methods: The study included 50 patients of acne and 30 healthy controls. Serum 25(OH) D and IL-17 levels were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was detected in 28% of patients with acne but only in 6.7% of the healthy controls (P value 0.022). The levels of 25(OH)D were inversely associated with the severity of acne (P < 0.001). The mean serum IL-17 levels were significantly raised (P < 0.001) in acne patients (8.215 ± 5.33 pg/mL) as compared to controls (2.486 ± 2.12 pg/mL). A significant rise in levels of IL-17 was observed with the severity of acne (P < 0.001). Further, a highly significant negative correlation (Correlation Coefficient: -0.668) was noted between serum IL-17 and 25(OH) D levels along with disease severity in acne patients (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: Raised IL-17 levels in acne correlate negatively with vit.D deficiency and both are significantly more prevalent in patients with acne as compared to healthy controls.
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Procedural dermatology during COVID 19 pandemic
Anwita Sinha, Shekhar Neema, Biju Vasudevan
May-June 2021, 66(3):256-263
The Corona virus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed unprecedented challenges on the healthcare system including the specialty of dermatology. Procedural dermatology being an integral part of the specialty has also been profoundly affected where all elective and cosmetic procedures are presently being deferred, giving priority only to urgent and inescapable dermatologic procedures to curb down the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in hospitals. With no certainty as to when the pandemic is going to end, procedural dermatology will be resumed in times to come, which must be taken up with cautious precautions. Dermatosurgeons must formulate protocols, restructure their facilities, and implement stringent measures with the aim to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, providing, at the same time, essential surgical care to patients. This review highlights the salient precautions to be observed in a dermatosurgery facility based on the current recommendations. The situation, however, remains fluid and as the pandemic is evolving, dermatosurgeons should remain vigilant and acquaint themselves with the latest guidelines.
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Fragrance, sunscreens, botanicals, and potential allergens in bestseller 'fairness' creams in the indian market: A consumer exposure study
Hima Gopinath, Bodicharla Manjula, Kaliaperumal Karthikeyan
May-June 2021, 66(3):279-283
Background: The skin lightening industry has seen exponential growth in India. Consumers often present to the dermatologist with adverse cutaneous reactions to these 'fairness' (skin lightening) creams. The composition of these creams has not received sufficient attention. Objective: To identify fragrance, sunscreens, botanicals and potential allergens in the bestseller 'fairness' creams available in the Indian market. Methods: Twenty fairness (or whitening or lightening) creams were selected based on the 'bestseller' creams of one of the largest electronic commerce websites in India, and availability in local stores and unlabelled brands were excluded. Fragrance, sunscreens, botanicals and potential allergens were identified from the ingredient labels. Results: Twenty bestseller fairness creams were included. The number of the listed ingredients in the fairness creams ranged from 6 to 49 (mean = 32.2). The most frequently listed ingredients included water, fragrance or parfum, glycerin, tocopherol/tocopherylacetate and titanium dioxide. Hydroquinone, monobenzyl hydroquinone, corticosteroids, tretinoin and mercury were not listed in any of the creams. Unspecified fragrance was listed in 19 (95%) creams and linalool (8,40%) was the most frequent specified fragrance. Titanium dioxide (14, 70 %) was the most common inorganic sunscreen and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (12 creams or 60% of creams) was the most common organic sunscreen. Twenty-seven botanicals were identified. Eight ingredients were potential allergens according to the Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series. The cost of the creams ranged from 95 to 1,095 in Indian rupees (mean 300.5). Conclusions: Consumers are exposed to a vast range of compounds in the quest for a lighter skin tone. Several potential allergens, particularly fragrance allergens, are present in addition to the eight allergens that were identified with the Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series. Increased awareness of the composition of skin lightening creams available in the market and strict regulation of these creams is needed.
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COVID-19 and healthcare worker: What we need to know
Deepak Jakhar, Chander Grover, Ishmeet Kaur, Anupam Das, Subuhi Kaul
May-June 2021, 66(3):264-271
COVID-19 pandemic has challenged and overwhelmed most healthcare institutions and healthcare workers, across the world. Despite being unprepared for this pandemic, frontline workers have worked relentlessly to provide the much-needed care to these patients. Doctors from different branches of medicine, including dermatologists, came forward and played a substantial role in mitigating the impact of this pandemic on the general population. Sadly, in the process, these healthcare workers faced many personal, social, psychological, economic, and health-related issues. The psychological burden and health-related issues received due attention in the main-stream news as well as scientific research papers. With most frontline workers isolated from their families, social media became the new platform to reduce the sense of isolation and share their anxiety, insomnia, and fatigue. This article is aimed at highlighting various challenges faced by healthcare workers during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
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Keep in touch; Improve the Outcome of Patients during COVID-19 pandemic
Shilpa Jithendran, Betsy Ambooken, Kidangazhiathmana Ajithkumar, Neelakandhan Asokan
May-June 2021, 66(3):324-325
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Clinical spectrum of cutaneous malignancies in central India: A retrospective study
Bhagyashree Babanrao Supekar, Suyash Singh Tomar, Vaishali H Wankhade, Ravi Bhushan, Rajesh Pratap Singh, Dharitri Mukund Bhat
May-June 2021, 66(3):284-290
Introduction: Cutaneous malignancies account for 1%–2% of all the diagnosed cancers in India. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) include basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Others include melanoma, cutaneous lymphomas, and sarcomas. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays is the most important risk factor associated with skin malignancies, although various other factors are also implicated. Aims and Objectives: The aims of this work were to study clinical spectrum with age and sex distribution of cutaneous malignancies and metastasis; to study clinicopathological variants of each type of cutaneous malignancies; and to study the risk factors associated with cutaneous malignancies. Patients and Methods: It was a retrospective analysis of clinically and biopsy proven cases of cutaneous malignancies from January 1, 2016 to January 31, 2018. Medical records of patients were assessed with respect to demographic information, clinical examination, dermoscopy, and histopathology. Statistical analysis was done using mean, proportion, and percentage. Results: Sixty-six cases with cutaneous malignancies were recruited. There was female preponderance. The most common age group affected was 60–70 years. BCC was the most common malignancy (41%) followed by SCC (30%), malignant melanoma (9%), and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (1.5%). Head and neck was the most common site involved. The most common clinical type of both BCC and SCC was the nodular type. Acral lentiginous was the most frequent subtype of melanoma reported. The most common predisposing for NMSCs was prolonged sun exposure (46%). Conclusion: This study highlights an increasing trend of NMSCs with female preponderance. Head and neck is the most common site involved. Increased risk of NMSCs is seen with increased sun exposure and predisposed genetic conditions. T-cell lymphoma was common than B-cell type. The most common internal malignancy to cause cutaneous metastasis was breast carcinoma.
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Biologics Beyond Boundaries: Innovative Use of Biologics in Dermatology
Abhishek De, Barnali Chowdhury, Monika Khemka, Aarti Sarda, Sudip Das
May-June 2021, 66(3):314-317
Several biologic agents have been approved for use in dermatology and other disciplines of medicine. However, based on the mechanism of action and a track record of the response, these agents are being increasingly used for off-label purposes to garner control of more remote and difficult disease processes. Herein, we present three difficult to treat patients where innovative uses of biologics beyond their approved indications have yielded good responses. Our first patient was a case of bullous pemphigoid, who showed excellent response to omalizumab. The second case was a patient of lepromatous leprosy with tenosynovitis and erythema nodosum leprosum, who was treated effectively with infliximab. Our third case was a treatment-resistant pyoderma gangrenosum, where infliximab showed a very good response. In the present study, we report the cases to highlight the usefulness of biologics that can expand much beyond the routine FDA approved indications.
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An Elderly Female with Progressive Inflammatory Scar-Like Papules
Madeline Adelman, Elizabeth A Gordon Spratt, Ben J Friedman
May-June 2021, 66(3):326-328
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Intravenous immunoglobulin: Revisited – My experience
Sanjeev S Vaishampayan, Surendra Singh Bhati, Radha R Lachhiramani, Shivank Shrivastava, Prateek Jain, Ajay Singh Raghuwanshi
May-June 2021, 66(3):329-329
Background: Many a times while treating dermatoses conventional therapies are either contraindicated or not effective. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a good alternative available to tide over crises. Method: Over the last 15 years of my practice I have used IVIg in various severe or recalcitrant diseases (including TEN, autoimmune blistering disease,connective tissue disorders , chronic urticaria etc) which were either unresponsive to conventional modality of therapy or primary therapy could not be given because of co-morbidities. Result: IVIg a sterile, highly purified preparation containing more than 95% unmodified IgG,was first approved by FDA in 1981 for 6 diseases. As mentioned above in many circumstances we reached a situation when either conventional primary therapy was contraindicated or patients were not responding. IVIg came to our rescue in large number of conditions to tide over the crisis and also created the environment leading to conventional therapy becoming effective. Very few minor side effects like low grade fever and myalgia were observed in very few cases. No serious or severe side effects were seen, however , one has to be prepared for anaphylactic reaction which is a theoretical possibility. Conclusion: It can be said that IVIg though not a magic drug, is a very effective tool available in the armamentarium of Dermatologists to treat plethora of chronic and intractable dermatoses.
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Cross-sectional study to identify potential risk factors for eczema within the common household environment in Taiwan
Yu-Hao Wang, Pi-Hsiung Wu, Hsing-Hao Su, Chung-Yang Wang, Lan Hsu
May-June 2021, 66(3):272-278
Background: Much attention has been focused on environmental risk factors and their roles in eczema development. In this regard, the specific eczema risk factors in Taiwan were relatively unknown. As such, this study investigated the common indoor risk factors present in Taiwanese households. Aims: To discuss the effects of several indoor risk factors on the prevalence of atopic eczema in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, using both survey investigation and fungal culturing. A total of 998 participants were enrolled in the survey, with 513 participants selected for fungal culture. Risks of atopic eczema were calculated as odds ratios for various risk factors using logistic regression. The correlation between potential risk factors and the fungal level was analyzed with linear regression. Results: Pet and house plants have an adjusted odds ratio of 1.434 (95% CL: 1.011–2.033) and 1.820 (95% CL: 1.229-2.696), respectively. Additionally, smoking was shown to possess an odds ratio of 1.461 (95% CL: 1.064-2.006). Wood wall has an adjusted odds ratio of 2.143 (95% CL: 1.235-3.658). Frequent bedroom shower use (β = 0.254) and hours of opened windows (β = 0.106) have shown significant positive associations with indoor fungal level. Conclusion: Pets, house plants, and smoking were concluded to be major risk factors for atopic eczema. Wood wall remained controversial due to its limited sample size and possible confounders. Bedroom shower and window-opening have been shown to increase mold growth, but the lack of association with eczema suggested other allergens besides mold to be the primary eczema trigger.
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Allergens in hand, foot, and hand–Foot eczema: An intercomparison by patch testing
S Sahana, SG Chethana, GR Kanthraj, Jayadev Betkerur
May-June 2021, 66(3):329-329
Background: Hand eczema (HE), foot eczema (FE), and hand–foot eczema (HFE) manifest on exposure to various agents in day-to-day life or in occupations or both. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify pattern of allergens causing HE, FE, and HFE and to identify multiple and concurrent contact allergies. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted from October 2013 to August 2015 which included 190 patients. Patch test was performed for 78.94% of patients (n = 150). The statistical tests used were descriptive, Cramer's V, and Chi-square tests. Results: The most commonly affected group was HFE (55.8%) followed by HE (22.1%) and FE (22.1%). Allergens showed positivity either singly 56.3% (n = 67) or in combination 43.69% (n = 52). Nickel (41.79%) was the most common allergen in all the three groups followed by potassium dichromate. Late reactions (after day 7) were observed in 17.64% of patients (n = 21). Nickel was observed in 42.85% (n = 9) and paraphenylenediamine was observed in 28.57% of patients (n = 6) with P values of <0.001 and 0.050, respectively. Multiple contact allergies were seen in 44% of patients (n = 52). Concurrent reactions (55.8% [n = 29]), polysensitization (34.6% [n = 18]), and mixed reactions (9.6% [n = 5]) (P value of <0.001) were observed. Conclusion: Significant multiple contact allergies including concurrent reactions with nickel sulfate, potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, and polysensitization were observed. No significant differences in allergen pattern were observed in HE, FE, and HFE. Recommendation: Day 7 reading is recommended in HFE.
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Concomitant segmental vitiligo and segmental morphea in an 8-year-old boy
Francesca Magri, Emanuele Miraglia, Giuseppe Soda, Sandra Giustini
May-June 2021, 66(3):318-319
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Elevation of serum SSCCAII in cutaneous and oral lichen planus: Missing link for hidden carcinogenic potential?
Nancy W Mikhael, Walid Abd El latif, Doaa M Elhabak
May-June 2021, 66(3):329-329
Context: Lichen planus (LP) is an immune mediated inflammatory condition. SCCAII is a useful biomarker reflecting Th17 type inflammation. It is also a tumour marker, especially for Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) Mechanism of carcinogenesis in LP is still unknown. Chronic inflammation may facilitate the development of cellular clones in the epidermis. Aims: Estimation of serum level of SCCA II in patients with cutaneous and oral LP (OLP) to detect its role in LP pathogenesis, and to reveal the missing link in understanding mechanism of carcinogenesis in LP. Methods and Material: A case control study, where 100 subjects were included; 80 LP patients (40 cutaneous & 40 oral) and 20 apparently healthy controls. We obtained an informed written consent from each subject prior the participation. Cutaneous and oral LP were diagnosed clinically, SCCA II level was measured by ELISA technique. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS vs.25. (IBM, Armonk, New York, United states). Numerical data was summarized as means and standard deviations or medians and ranges. Results: Median SSCCAII level was significantly higher in LP cases compared to controls (P < 0.001) and was significantly higher in patients with OLP compared to patients with cutaneous LP (P ≤ 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that median SSCCAII was significantly higher in patients with ulcerative type compared to both reticular type and others. It was also significantly higher in patients with actinic type compared to both hypertrophic type and classic type. Median SSCCAII was significantly higher in patients with ulcerative OLP compared to actinic LP (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our study revealed that serum SCCAII level was higher in patients with cutaneous and OLP. This might be linked to the pathogenesis of LP, especially actinic and erosive OLP. SCCAII level could facilitate the screening and early detection of patients at risk, a potential alarm to launch accurate assessment and continue follow up of cutaneous as well as O LP patients.
  536 16 -
Angiosarcoma of nose masquerading rhinophyma
Athota Kavitha, Kavya Chennamsetty, Sasi Attili, Richard A Carr, Cheung Tin-yan Elaine
May-June 2021, 66(3):320-322
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An unusual case of faun tail nevus with aplasia cutis, dermo-fascial sinus defect, diastematomyelia, and spinal cord syrinx
Jaspriya Sandhu, Sunil K Gupta, Manisha Katha
May-June 2021, 66(3):322-324
  434 15 -
Multiple scalp tumors in juvenile hyaline fibromatosis with antxr-2 mutation in a family
Vibhu Mendiratta, Anuja Yadav, Jyoti Yadav, Smita Singh, Neha Suman
May-June 2021, 66(3):330-330
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Chronic dermatophytosis: Clinico-mycological determinants and antifungal susceptibility pattern
S Sooriya, Sabeena Jayapalan, G Mini, S Manjusree, Lakshmy Nandakumar
May-June 2021, 66(3):329-329
Background: Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in chronic unresponsive dermatophytosis. A study was conducted to quantify the proportion of patients with chronic dermatophytosis and to determine the clinico-mycological predictors of chronicity including antifungal susceptibility. Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study design was adopted. Four hundred and twenty-five patients were studied. The outcome variable was chronic dermatophytosis and the determinants were clinico-mycological characteristics. Chi-square and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results: Chronic dermatophytosis was seen in 29.4%. Past history of dermatophytosis, OR 0.44 (95% CI 0.28–0.68); family history of dermatophytosis, OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.06–2.56); HIV infection, OR 9.88 (95% CI 1.09–89.33); treatment with topical antifungals, OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.5–3.9); systemic antifungals, OR 3.9 (95% CI 2.5–6.1); topical steroids, OR 2.02 (95% CI 1.25–3.25); multiple-site infection, OR 1.97 (95% CI 1.24–3.13); and tinea unguium, OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.89–14.7) were the significant determinants. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (73.6%) was the most common isolate followed by Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum (13.2%) each. A percentage of 77.4 of the isolates were resistant—73.6% isolates to terbinafine and 3.8% isolates to fluconazole. None of the isolates were resistant to itraconazole. Conclusion: Significant determinants were host-related factors. Thorough history taking, patient examination, and education can improve the present scenario. Microbiological resistance was not a significant predictor. High proportion of resistant strains should be an eye opener. Developing and adopting a standard uniform treatment protocol throughout the country should be the need of the hour.
  386 30 -
Skin biopsy in the diagnosis of a rare case of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma
Rita Bouceiro-Mendes, Maria Mendonça-Sanches, Luís Soares-de-Almeida
May-June 2021, 66(3):330-330
  346 22 -
Health burden of Hansen's disease in central India: A 4-year retrospective study
Vrutika H Shah, Rajesh P Singh, Shashank K Agrawal, Bhagyashree B Supekar, Lavanya Panindra
May-June 2021, 66(3):308-313
Background: Despite the implementation of multidrug therapy by WHO to treat Hansen's disease (HD), new case detection rates are still high indicating active transmission. Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical profile of HD in central India along with its epidemiological characteristics. Materials and Methods: Medical records of clinically diagnosed Hansen's patients were recruited retrospectively during January 2015 to December 2018. Case records were evaluated with respect to demographic, clinical, histopathological, and bacteriological investigations, development of reaction, and deformities. Patients were classified based on Ridley Jopling classification and treated accordingly. Statistical analysis was done using proportion, mean, and percentage. Results: A total of 400 new patients were enrolled and males outnumbered females. Maximum cases, 115 (28.75%), were in the age group of 31–40 years. Sixteen (4%) cases belonged to the pediatric age (less than 18 years) group. Most common clinical spectrum was borderline lepromatous (n = 156, 39%) followed by lepromatous HD (n = 120, 30%). Eleven patients had pure neuritic HD and nine had histoid HD. Grade 2 deformity was found in 52 and grade 1 deformity was found in 16 patients. Most common lepra reaction was type 2 lepra reaction (n = 112, 28%). Thirteen (3.25%) patients were of relapse of HD among which maximum eight were BL HD followed by LL HD three (0.75%) and TT HD two (0.5%). Conclusion: Early diagnosis is very important for timely and proper implementation of treatment which will prevent sequelae and physical disabilities that can have an impact on the individual's social and working life, which are responsible for stigma and prejudice regarding the disease. Detection of this huge number of cases signifies a high burden of HD in this area even in the post elimination era.
  346 19 -
Bacillus calmette–Guerin immunotherapy for recurrent multiple warts: an open-label uncontrolled study
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
May-June 2021, 66(3):330-330
  230 24 -
Clear Cell Porocarcinoma Arising in an Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Patient
Bruno de Castro e Souza, Neusa Yuriko Sakai Valente, Stephen Tyring, Walmar Roncalli Pereira de Olveira
May-June 2021, 66(3):330-330
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