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Indian Journal of Dermatology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
March-April 2021
Volume 66 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 117-227

Online since Friday, April 16, 2021

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Topical antibacterials in dermatology Highly accessed article p. 117
Debabrata Bandyopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_99_18  
Topical antibacterials are commonly used for superficial pyodermas such as impetigo and treatment or prevention of infections following minor cuts, abrasions, burns, and surgical wounds. Several antibiotics and antiseptics are available for use in different indications. One of the major uses of topical antibacterials is acne in which benzoyl peroxide is the drug of the first choice either singly or in combination with antibiotics or retinoids. Mupirocin and fusidic acid are the two most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of superficial pyodermas and eradication of staphylococcal carrier state. Bacterial resistance to topical antibiotics is a growing concern and topical antiseptics such as gentian violet are getting renewed interest as alternatives. Incidence of contact dermatitis is a limiting factor for the use of several topical antibacterials. Although many botanical products have demonstrated in vitro activities against skin pathogens, their clinical utilities remain to be established by good-quality clinical trials.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Mutation analysis of the MVD gene in a chinese family with disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis and a chinese literature review p. 126
Wenjun Qian, Jing Wu, Huayang Tang, Qi Zhen, Huiyao Ge, Jinping Gao, Jingjing Chen, Yuling Chang, Wenjun Wang, Liangdan Sun
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_226_18  
Background: Porokeratosis (PK) is a rare, heterogeneous group of keratinization disorders with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern and is characterized by the presence of cornoid lamella. Disseminated superficial actinic PK is the most encountered subtype and typically manifests as multiple, small annular plaques with atrophic centers and slightly raised hyperkeratotic edges. Seven associated mutations (SSH1, SART3, MVKP, MVK, MVD, FDPS, and SLC17A9) have been reported in disseminated superficial actinic PK patients. Aim: We searched a Chinese disseminated superficial porokeratosis (DSAP) family to detect the causative genes. In the meantime, we reviewed the articles reported about DSAP in Chinese population, summarizing their clinical manifestations and discussing the incidence of DSAP in Chinese population. Materials and Methods: Sanger sequencing on the MVD and MVK genes was performed to identify the pathogenic mutation in a Chinese family with DSAP. Literature for DSAP cases reported in Chinese populations was searched by Sinomed and PubMed. Results: We identified the c. 875A > G (p. Asn292Ser) mutation in the MVD gene in the family. Conclusions: That mutation was a hotspot mutation. Literature review showed that the age of onset in DSAP family was earlier than that in sporadic patients; the lesion is common in the face in Chinese population which is distinct from studies in Caucasians; ultraviolet exposure is the main aggravating factor.
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Candidal onychomycosis: Clinicoepidemiological profile, prevailing strains, and antifungal susceptibility pattern–a study from a tertiary care hospital Highly accessed article p. 132
Shagufta Rather, Abid Keen, Faizan Younus Shah, Atiya Yaseen, Shaiqa Farooq, Asifa Bakhshi
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_395_20  
Background: Despite an increasing trend of onychomycosis caused by Candida species in recent years, there is a scarcity of published data. Objective: To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Candida onychomycosis, to identify the prevalent, and perform in-vitro antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) of the isolates. Methodology: A total of 506 consecutive patients with a clinical suspicion of onychomycosis were included in a cross-sectional clinical study. Nail scrapings and clippings were subjected to KOH examination and culture. Species identification and antifungal drug sensitivity testing were done for Candida isolates using Vitek 2YST Compact system using Vitek 2 cards. Results: Out of 384 (75.88%) culture-positive cases, dermatophytes were isolated in 58.08%, yeast in 26.30%, and NDM in 12.24%. Of the yeast, Candida albicans was isolated in 59.4% and non-albicans species in 40.59%. AFST showed that most of Candida species exhibited 100% susceptibility to most of the antifungal drugs tested, while intermediate resistance to fluconazole and flucytosine was seen in some non-albicans species (C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. guilliermondii). Time taken for species identification was 14–18 h (average 15.5 h), while determination of minimum inhibitory concentration took 9–27 h (average 13 h). Conclusions: Our study showcases the present scenario of Candida distribution and the resistance patterns of various species afflicting the nail unit. Furthermore, our findings clearly indicate that the carriage of this pathogenic yeast is seen in both healthy individuals as well as with immunosuppression.
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A study on the impact of genetic polymorphisms of cytokines TNFα, IFNγ and IL10 in South Indian leprosy patients p. 138
Venkata Karunakar Kolla, Shehnaz Sultana, Samuel Abraham Joshi Davala, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_684_20  
Background: Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is a chronic, debilitating disease predominantly of the peripheral nervous system characterized by the impairment of peripheral nerves and subsequent sensory loss caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The pro- and antiinflammatory cytokine genes play a major role in nerve damage in leprosy. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the present study is to ascertain the association of cytokine gene polymorphisms TNFα -308G/A (rs 1800629), IFNγ +874A/T (rs 2430561), and IL10 -1082G/A rs 1800896 in causation with leprosy. Materials and Methods: The present study comprised 365 leprosy patients and 185 control subjects. The polymorphisms in TNFα-308, IFNγ+874, and IL10-1082 genes were typed using the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method (ARMS PCR). Results: The present study found significant association between IL10-1082 GA heterozygote (P < 0.02) and IFNγ+874 AA (P < 0.001) genotype and leprosy. TNFα-308GA could not establish any association with the disease. Conclusion: The identification of genetic variations in pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines that are susceptible to leprosy would assist in better understanding of the pathogenesis of leprosy and perhaps lead to new approaches for diagnosis and treatment.
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Skin damage induced by enhanced protective measures in frontline doctors during Covid-19 pandemic: A web-based descriptive study Highly accessed article p. 145
Mahimanjan Saha, Indrashis Podder, Anupam Das
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_687_20  
Background: Frontline doctors engaged in COVID-19 duties have to adopt enhanced protective measures to minimize their risk of exposure. However, these measures may lead to several skin problems, thereby affecting their performance. Objectives: To analyze skin changes induced by enhanced protective measures and explore possible risk factors. Materials and Methods: A web-based descriptive study was conducted among 212 frontline COVID-19 doctors. Data were collected regarding their demography, duty, use of enhanced protective measures including prophylactic hydroxychloroquine, recent skin changes with affected sites, and possible risk factors. Results: Skin changes were reported by 41.5% of respondents (mean age 34.8 ± 5.6 years) across 210 sites. Hands were involved most commonly in 77.3% of doctors, followed by nasal bridge, cheeks, and retroauricular area. Dryness (84.1%) and skin peeling (79.5%) were the commonest clinical features. Regression model showed prolonged PPE wear (>6 h) adjusted odd's ratio (AOR) 2.9, P = 0.005], heavy sweating [AOR 12.8, P = 0.001] and frequent hand hygiene (>10 times/day) [AOR 3.1, P = 0.0006] to be significant risk factors. Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis was deemed safe as treatment-emergent adverse events were uncommon (17.4%). Conclusion: Frontline doctors have an increased risk of developing skin damage due to enhanced protective measures. Appropriate steps should be taken to address the risk factors and minimize skin damage. Persistent cases mandate dermatology referral for optimum management.
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A randomized comparative study of MIP and MMR vaccine for the treatment of cutaneous warts p. 151
Amandeep Kaur, Balvinder Kaur Brar, Sumir Kumar, Sukhmani Kaur Brar, Amarbir Singh Boparai, Neerja Puri
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_700_20  
Objectives: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of MMR vaccine and MIP vaccine for resolution of Cutaneous warts (Cw). Methods: The hospital-based prospective randomized interventional study was done where a total of 60 patients of Cw were divided into two groups of 30 patients each: Group A received 0.1 ml of intralesional injection of MIP vaccine and Group B received 0.5 ml of MMR vaccine. The treatment protocol involved three intralesional injection of vaccines at intervals of 3 weeks (maximum of three injections). The follow-up was done every 4 weeks for at least 24 weeks for the comparison of the two groups. The primary outcomes were the decrease in size of the wart or clearance of primary warts. The secondary outcomes were the improvement in the distant warts and any complications related to the use of vaccines. The data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 version. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The baseline demographic and wart characteristics were comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05). As compared to MMR, MIP showed an early (9.41 vs 11.71 weeks, P = 0.027), and a significantly higher complete response (90% vs 76.67%) with P < 0.05. The less duration of the warts was significantly associated with the higher complete response (P < 0.05) in both the groups. The common side effects were erythema/inflammation [19 (63.34%)] in Group A and pain during the injection [19 (63.34%)] in Group B with P < 0.0001. Conclusion: In conclusion, MIP intralesional injections have a quicker response and are more efficacious compared to MMR in the treatment of Cw, though each vaccine carries its own sets of side effects.
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Real-life experience of efficacy and safety of bilastine in the refractory cases of chronic spontaneous urticaria and its effect on the quality of life of patients p. 159
Abhishek De, Kiran Godse, Dhiraj Dhoot, Aarti Sarda
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_771_20  
Introduction: Second-generation H1-antihistamines (SGAHs) are the mainstay of treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Bilastine, newer non-sedating SGAHs, was recently introduced in India after the approval of the Drugs Controller General of India. There is a paucity of evidence about the long-term efficacy and safety of Bilastine in Indian patients. We undertook this study to find the long-term efficacy and tolerability of Bilastine in patients with CSU in India. Materials and Methods: This retrospective chart analysis was conducted by analyzing electronic medical records from May 1, 2019, to March 20, 2020, to identify patients of CSU who were prescribed Bilastine. Adult patients, with CSU >6 months were included, who had an unsatisfactory response as per Urticaria Activity Score 7 (UAS7) to previous antihistamine therapies, and who continued treatment for at least 6 months were included. Treatment effectiveness was determined by retrospectively reviewing their UAS7 scores from their medical records and evaluating their scores at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24. Also, DLQI was assessed and compared at baseline and week 24. Result: Forty-nine patients were found to fulfill the criteria and included in the study. At the end of 24 weeks, 51% of patients (n = 25) achieved complete treatment response (UAS = 0), whereas 49% of patients (n = 24) were labeled as well-controlled urticaria (UAS<6). At 24 weeks, the mean UAS7 score (1.35 ± 1.61) was statistically significant compared to the baseline score (20.2 ± 5.73). The mean score of DLQI was also reduced to 1.63 ± 1.18 at 24 weeks from 8.39 ± 2.49 at baseline (P-value <0.001). Conclusion: The study showed that in patients who had an inadequate response with commonly used antihistamines at a double dose or combined use, switching over to Bilastine resulted not only in relieving the symptoms of CSU but also improved the quality of life of the patients with CSU.
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BASIC RESEARCH Top

Dermoscopic findings of rosacea and demodicosis p. 165
Yesim Akpinar Kara, Hatice Kaya Özden
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_290_18  
Background: Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disorder affecting the facial skin. Objectives: Dermoscopy is a noninvasive procedure that is commonly used for the diagnosis of dermatological diseases. This article aims to determine the clinical and dermoscopic manifestations of the rosacea patients and the presence of the accompanying Demodex. Materials and Methods: The study evaluated 23 patients who were diagnosed with rosacea through clinical and dermoscopic findings. The patients were clinically and dermoscopically photographed and were classified according to the rosacea classification. The presence of Demodex was demonstrated both dermoscopically and through biopsy. Results: There were a total of 23 participants (17 females and 6 males). The ages of the participants ranged between 28 and 75, with an average of 49. Among the 23 participants, 14 were erythematotelangiectatic, 7 were papulopustular, and 2 were rhinophyma. A total of 12 participants (4 males and 8 females) had ocular involvement. The most common dermoscopic finding was a linear vascular structure. A total of 15 patients (11 females and 4 males) had the demodicosis finding. Conclusion: The diagnosis of rosacea and demodicosis through dermoscopic findings is as reliable as a biopsy and it has the advantage of being noninvasive.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Expression of programmed death-ligand 1 and programmed death-1 in patients with extramammary paget's disease p. 169
Hiroyuki Goto, Kazunari Sugita, Osamu Yamamoto
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_341_18  
Background: Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare skin cancer and sometimes has fatal prognosis. For progressive cases, therapeutic options are limited. In recent years, treatment with an anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibody has improved the prognosis of various malignancies. In addition, correlations between PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in tumor cells and favorable responses to anti-PD-1 therapy have been reported for several cancers. There have been a few case series of analysis of PD-L1 expression in patients with EMPD. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the EMPD and PD-L1/PD-1 expression in Japanese EMPD patients. Materials and Methods: We investigated 39 patients with EMPD by immunohistochemical staining of PD-L1 and PD-1. We counted the number of tumor cells that were positive for PD-L1 and the number of tumor-infiltrating mononuclear cells (TIMCs) that were positive for PD-L1 and PD-1. We also analyzed correlations between the expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 in EMPD and patients' characteristics. Results: We found that none of the Paget's cells expressed PD-L1. All of the specimens contained TIMCs, and some of the TIMCs expressed PD-L1 and PD-1. However, there was no correlation between the expression of PD-L1/PD-1 in TIMCs and patients' characteristics. Conclusion: Although tumor cells did not express PD-L1 and the expression of PD-L1/PD-1 in TIMCs did not correlate with patients' characteristics, future clinical studies should be carried out to explore another immune escape pathway in EMPD.
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HISTORY Top

Dermoscopy saga – A tale of 5 centuries p. 174
Jeta Buch, Sebastian Criton
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_691_18  
The origin of dermoscopy can be traced back to the middle of the modern age and Borel's discovery (1655 – 1656) laid the foundation stone with important contributions from Ernst Karl Abbe, Unna, Muller, Saphier and others. However, the work done by Dr. Ronald Mackie (1971) for the early detection of melanoma marks the peak. The entire journey of evolution was eventful. This article is a brief overview on the history of dermoscopy and the contribution of various scientists leading to emergence of dermoscopy as an independent, dynamic field today.
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RESIDENTS PAGE Top

A compendium of specific histopathological bodies in dermatology Highly accessed article p. 179
Anup Kumar Tiwary, Hiral Shah, Bhushan Madke, Piyush Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_629_16  
The spectrum of histopathological variations of most of the Dermatological conditions is so wide and overlapping that even with our current vast knowledge of this discipline, it seems to be a tough task for clinicians as well as Dermatopathologists to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis in many cases. However, with the aid of special stains and advanced diagnostic techniques, some characteristic histopathologic features have been defined over the time, among which histopathological bodies or inclusion bodies serve as specific clues. With this perspective in view, an attempt has been made to collate and describe the well-known as well as the lesser-known histopathological bodies seen in various dermatological diseases. The underlying pathogenesis and ultramicroscopic features of these structures have also been outlined in brief.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Dermoscopic features of leukemia cutis—Case series p. 187
M Sławiñska, M Sokołowska-Wojdyło, W Biernat, A Zaryczañska, RJ Nowicki, M Sobjanek
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_534_19  
Leukemia cutis (LC) is a term describing skin lesions caused by cutaneous infiltration by hematological malignancies (myeloid or lymphoid). To our knowledge, there are no published reports on dermoscopic presentation of LC. The aim of the study was to analyze dermoscopic pattern in series of 5 patients with the diagnosis of LC.
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Neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands with palmar involvement and predominant lymphomononuclear cell infiltration p. 191
Avik Panigrahi, Surajit K Biswas, Abheek Sil, Dibyendu B Bhanja
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_218_20  
Neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands (NDH) is a rare localized acral variant of Sweet syndrome. NDH predominantly involves the dorsal hands with characteristic dense dermal neutrophilic infiltrate with an upper dermal edema observed on histopathology. Unusual findings like palmar involvement and predominant lymphomononuclear dermal infiltration in our case with NDH, makes it an interesting read.
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CORRESPONDENCES Top

Novel ultrastructural findings of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm p. 195
Kazunari Sugita, Ayano Ikeda, Ryoko Kimura, Osamu Yamamoto
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_57_20  
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Anti-neuronal IgG antibodies in bullous pemphigoid coexistent with neurodegeneration p. 196
Justyna Gornowicz-Porowska, Agnieszka Seraszek-Jaros, Monika Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Paweł Bartkiewicz, Elżbieta Kaczmarek, Marian Dmochowski
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_312_19  
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Eruptive xanthoma and granuloma annulare in association with metabolic disorder p. 199
Rekha Virath, Sharad Mehta, Manisha Balai, Manju Meena, Lalit Kumar Gupta
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_421_19  
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An unusual occurrence of protein C deficiency and cytomegalovirus infection in a case of purpura fulminans p. 201
Haseena Sait, Raghvendra Singh, Seema Kapoor
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_463_19  
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Clinician severity assessment grading scale on erythematotelangiectatic rosacea p. 203
Jong-Kil Seo, Eun-Jae Shin, Ki-Heon Jeong, Min Kyung Shin
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_611_19  
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A rare case of nail bed foreign body granuloma with malignant dermoscopic appearance p. 205
Jinglin Xiong, Jiawen Yin, Yalong Ren, Min Xu, Yao Chen, Xiaoming Ouyang, Wenlin Yang
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_630_19  
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Protective effects of moisturizers on skin barrier during regular hand washing with soap bars p. 207
Aniseh Samadi, Zeynab Khosrowpour, Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi, Azin Ayatollahi, Alireza Firooz
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_687_19  
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Superimposed effects of adalimumab and linagliptin on the development of bullous pemphigoid in a psoriatic patient: A case report p. 208
Katsuhiro Yamada, Mai Noto, Takehiro Yamakawa, Motomu Manabe, Shin-Ichi Osada
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_794_19  
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Aggressive angiomyxoma with lymphangitis a rare entity – Case report p. 210
Safa Patrick, Sumit Kar, Nitin Gangane, Abhay Deshmukh, Priyanka Date, Ajinkya Sawant
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_756_19  
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Eruptive pruritic papular porokeratosis: A rare variant of porokeratosis p. 212
Rashi Soni, Meghana Phiske, Parmeshwar Kanade, Jincy John, Rajiv Joshi, Someshwar Shylaja
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_81_20  
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Co-occurrence of ichthyosisc vulgaris, dowling-degos disease, and hidradenitis suppuritiva in same patient: an association or coincidence? p. 214
Shivani Saini, Akshay K Jain, Manish Jain, Devendra Yadav
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_125_20  
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Subungual angiokeratoma simulating a malignant melanoma: A case report and mini review p. 216
Xizhao Yang, Shuang Zhao, Yan Tang, Juan Su
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_141_20  
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An upsurge of hand dermatitis cases amidst COVID-19 pandemic p. 218
Debjit Kar, Anupam Das, Abheek Sil
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_631_20  
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Novel frameshift mutations in XPC gene underlie xeroderma pigmentosum in Pakistani families p. 220
Ambreen Ijaz, Khadim Shah, Abdul Aziz, Fazal U Rehman, Yasir Ali, Abdul M Tareen, Kafaitullah Khan, Muhammad Ayub, Abdul Wali
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_63_20  
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E-IJDŽ - ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

A comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and cost of rituximab versus dexamethasone cyclophosphamide pulse in patients of pemphigus vulgaris Highly accessed article p. 223
Sudip Das, Komal Agarwal, Sonal Singh, Deepika Halder, Sujata Sinha, Abhishek De
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_306_20  
Introduction: Rituximab is slowly getting recognized as a promising steroid-sparing agent in the treatment of moderate to severe cases of pemphigus vulgaris (PV). We evaluated and compared the effectiveness, safety, and cost of therapy of rituximab versus dexamethasone cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP) in Indian patients with PV. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective data analysis, from the Immunobullous disease clinic in a tertiary centre of eastern India, of management of PV. In our institute we use either rituximab or DCP for the management of moderate to severe cases of PV, depending on that we retrospectively divided the treated cases of PV in two groups. Patients who were treated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) protocol of rituximab were considered to be group 1. Patients who were treated with DCP were included in group 2. Response was assessed by pemphigus area, and activity score (PAAS), Dermatology life quality index (DLQI); photographic documentation, and blood parameters were monitored. Results: Both groups showed significant improvement in PAAS and DLQI, the improvement was faster and well sustained in the rituximab group. In terms of safety and development of new vesicles, rituximab had a better profile with only 1 patient having adverse effects and none with new vesicles as compared to DCP (3 had adverse effects and 2 developed new vesicles). Conclusions: Rituximab offers the advantage of early and prolonged remission, lesser adverse effects, better effectiveness, less risk of relapses, faster improvement of PAAS, and DLQI. Though rituximab is an expensive drug, but on evaluating the cost of whole therapy, it was seen that rituximab infusions are actually cheaper compared to DCP pulse. We suggest, rituximab can be used as the first-line of therapy for pemphigus vulgaris in the Indian context.
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Metabolic status, obesity, and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris: A cross-sectional case-control study Highly accessed article p. 223
Indrashis Podder, Komal Agarwal, Anubhav Anurag
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_321_20  
Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the adolescents, with a profound impact on their quality of life. There is conflicting data regarding its association with metabolic syndrome. Objective: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity in patients with acne vulgaris, and determine its impact on the patient's quality of life. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, case-control study involving 50 patients with acne vulgaris (cases) and 50 age and sex-matched controls without acne. Acne vulgaris was graded according to clinical severity using the GAGS scale. NCEP-ATP III criteria and modified classification of body mass index (BMI) for Asian Indians were used to diagnose MetS and obesity, respectively, in both cases and controls. We used the DLQI questionnaire to evaluate its impact on the quality of life. Results: Cases and controls were comparable with respect to parameters like age, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DSBP), and serum triglyceride while fasting blood sugar (FBS, case > control) and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL, control > case) were significantly different (P < 0.05, independent t-test). Prevalence of MetS was higher in cases (32%) than controls (14%), though comparable (P = 0.06, Chi-square). Only SBP, FBS, and serum HDL showed a significant correlation with the severity of acne. Obesity was comparable between cases (18%) and controls (10%), without any relation to acne severity. Acne exerted a moderate impact on the quality of life (mean DLQI 9.3). Severe acne showed higher DLQI, although their correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.8, ANOVA). Conclusion: Although acne patients may develop MetS and obesity, there is a lack of significant association. Thus, we should examine all obese patients, irrespective of dermatological disorder, to rule out metabolic syndrome. Acne also affects the patient's quality of life, thus emphasizing the need for additional psychosocial counselling.
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E-IJDŽ-RESIDENT PAGES Top

Toll-like receptors in dermatology, venereology, and leprosy p. 223
Sneha Gandhi, K Ravindra
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_486_17  
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a family of Type I transmembrane proteins characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain and a cytoplasmic domain. TLRs represent a conserved group of receptors which help the immune system to function properly. Different TLRs are associated with an array of skin diseases. TLR agonists and antagonists have great potential for the treatment of allergic and inflammatory diseases.
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A case of cutaneous rosai-dorfman disease treated by intralesional injections of glucocorticoid p. 223
Yan-xia Yuan, Chun-xing Xu, Ru-zhi Zhang
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_508_18  
A 45-year-old male presented with painless reddish-brown plaques and nodules that had infiltrated his shoulder and back for 3 months. From the clinical manifestations and histopathological findings, the patient was diagnosed with cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease. Intralesional injections of betamethasone (trade name: diprospan) were recommended and the lesions improved significantly after three treatments.
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E–IJDŽ - CASE REPORTS Top

Koebnerization of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus at insulin injection sites – A rare case with dermoscopic features p. 224
Tejas Vishwanath, Sunil Ghate, Geeta Shinde, Vikram Lahoria, Binny Binny, Ankita Sonwane
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_634_18  
Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSEA), also known as lichen sclerosus (LS), is a disabling, cosmetically disfiguring condition predominantly affecting the anogenital region of pre- and postmenopausal females. Extragenital LS is relatively less common and occurs predominantly on the trunk and neck. Koebnerization or isomorphic phenomenon is reported occasionally in LS after trauma like radiotherapy. A few case reports describe koebnerization of LS at injection sites. We describe the first such case in India of LS koebnerizing at insulin injection sites with dermoscopic features.
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A case of annular epidermolytic ichthyosis resulting from a de novo mutation, p.I479T, in Keratin 1 Gene p. 224
Lihong Chen, Cheng Quan, Jie Zheng, Meng Pan, Xiaoqing Zhao
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_115_20  
We report a case of annular epidermolytic ichthyosis (AEI) resulting from de novo keratin 1 gene mutation. AEI is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited cornification disorder and is a distinct phenotypic variant of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. Blisters and erosions in AEI are widespread; hence, initially, it is sometimes mistaken with epidermolysis bullosa, acrodermatitis enteropathica, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Genetic tests including next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing are essential for AEI diagnosis. AEI is treated symptomatically by wound dressing, prevention of infection, and the use of emollients, humectants, and keratolytic products; topical or systemic retinoids may also prove helpful.
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E-IJDŽ - CORRESPONDENCES Top

Dyskeratosis congenita with portal hypertension and oesophageal webs: A case report p. 224
Sandeep Khuraiya, Ramesh Raidas, Vinod Jain, Dilip Kachhwaha
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_113_16  
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Peripheral T-cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified presenting as disfiguring facial swelling p. 224
Arghya Bandyopadhyay, Shreosee Roy, Joly Seth, Anup Kumar Boler, Satabdi Mitra, Priyankar Mishra
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_205_18  
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Unusual pigmented purpuric dermatosis with linear distribution and granulomatous inflammation p. 224
Gabriela Pita da Veiga, Elena Rosón, Laura Sainz-Gaspar, José-Manuel Suárez-Peñaranda, Alejandra Pérez-Feal, Hugo Vázquez-Veiga
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_264_18  
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Pattern of peer review in dermatology domain: An analysis of reviewers' profile from publons.com p. 225
Himel Mondal, Shaikat Mondal
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_326_18  
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A rare case of epstein-barr virus-positive peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) presenting with single large ulcerative growth p. 225
Rajesh K Soni, Bhagyashree B Supekar, Jayesh I Mukhi, Rajesh P Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_486_18  
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Solitary reactive eccrine duct proliferation with prominent lymphoid infiltrates (pseudolymphomatous syringoma?) p. 225
Kozo Nakai, Reiji Haba, Yasuo Kubota
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_517_18  
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Sign of Leser-Trélat Associated with Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia p. 225
Kozo Yoneda, Kozo Nakai, Toshio Demitsu, Yasuo Kubota
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_556_18  
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Successful treatment of acrodermatitis continua of hallopeau with an anti-IL-17A agent p. 225
Sae Inoue, Rei Watanabe, Yosuke Ishitsuka, Yoshiyuki Nakamura, Yasuhiro Fujisawa, Naoko Okiyama, Manabu Fujimoto
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_584_18  
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Bilateral multifocal soft tissue amyloidomas of the lower extremities p. 226
Kozo Nakai, Hiroaki Dobashi, Reiji Haba, Taro Yamashita, Yasuo Kubota
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_588_18  
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Primary localized histoplasmosis: atypical presentation in immunocompetent patient – Case report p. 226
Rogerio N Kondo, Fabiana De M Scalone, André Armani, Angela N Gordan
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_599_18  
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A case of subungual wart invading the nail root successfully cured with surgery combined with photodynamic therapy p. 226
Jingjing Li, Shiwang Mao, Liming Huang, Minzhi Wu, Xingfan Mo, Fanghua He, Liang Zhao, Wei Zhang
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_623_18  
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Multiple familial trichoepithelioma with varied malignancies p. 226
Bhagyashree B Supekar, Kinjal D Rambhia, Suyash Singh Tomar, RP Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_647_18  
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Correction of doll hair look achieved with combination of follicular unit extraction method of hair restoration and follicular punch graft reduction p. 226
Prince Yuvraj Singh, Vikas Pathania, Ruby Venugopal, Thrinley Choden
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_656_18  
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Mycosis fungoides associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia p. 227
Kazunari Sugita, Ayako Ito, Osamu Yamamoto
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_731_18  
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