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Figure 1: Mechanisms of Th1/Th17 cell induction in acne. Propionibacterium acnes in conjunction with toll-like receptor 2 receptors stimulate the CD4 naïve cells to differentiate into Th1 and Th17 cells. Tumor growth factor-beta induce regulatory T cells and Th17 cells via the induction of FoxP3 and RORC. Inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-21, and IL-23, initiates Th17 axis. The effector cytokines released by Th17 cells include IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, and CCL20, which act on both immune and nonimmune cells and mediate several functions. APC: Antigen presenting cells; B: B cell; DC: Dendritic cell; EC: Endothelial cell; EpC: Epithelial cell

Figure 1: Mechanisms of Th1/Th17 cell induction in acne. <i>Propionibacterium acnes</i> in conjunction with toll-like receptor 2 receptors stimulate the CD4 naïve cells to differentiate into Th1 and Th17 cells. Tumor growth factor-beta induce regulatory T cells and Th17 cells via the induction of FoxP3 and RORC. Inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-21, and IL-23, initiates Th17 axis. The effector cytokines released by Th17 cells include IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, and CCL20, which act on both immune and nonimmune cells and mediate several functions. APC: Antigen presenting cells; B: B cell; DC: Dendritic cell; EC: Endothelial cell; EpC: Epithelial cell