Indian Journal of Dermatology
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   2018| November-December  | Volume 63 | Issue 6  
    Online since November 2, 2018

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Evaluation of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay among varying titers of the venereal disease research laboratory test
Bineeta Kashyap, Nisha Goyal, Neha Gupta, NP Singh, Vinod Kumar
November-December 2018, 63(6):479-483
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_595_17  PMID:30504976
Background and Objective: Syphilis, besides being a significant cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, is a substantial cause of adult morbidity. A discordant serological result can present a diagnostic challenge; hence, a fundamental knowledge about the diagnostic limitations or interpretation of these assays becomes imperative for the clinicians to avoid management dilemma. The study was proposed to see the usefulness and correlation of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) with varying titers of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 2 years, 22,351 sera were subjected to screening for syphilis by VDRL test. TPHA test was performed for confirmation in 243 of the total sera. Results: VDRL reactivity was seen in 0.77% of the tested sera. TPHA positivity was 58.85% among the sera tested. Calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of VDRL against TPHA were 87.41%, 52%, 72.25%, and 74.29%, respectively. TPHA positivity was found to be 100% and 55% in VDRL reactive cases with titers ≥32 and <8, respectively. Conclusion: Screening and diagnostic serological tests for syphilis should be reviewed in routine by the treating physician in the light of clinical presentation and the history of infection and treatment.
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Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 in herpes genitalis: A polymerase chain reaction-based study from Kerala
Rani Mathew, Bangalath Najeem, Kunjumani Sobhanakumary, Beena Sunny, Carol Pinheiro, Balakrishnan Anukumar
November-December 2018, 63(6):475-478
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_187_17  PMID:30504975
Background: Herpes genitalis is an ulcerating sexually transmitted infection, the clinical importance of which lies in its ability to produce painful and recurrent disease in addition to its potential role as a cofactor in acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. In recent years, there are increasing reports of genital herpes due to herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 from various parts of the world. Molecular diagnostic methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have got both diagnostic and prognostic significance in genital herpes. Aims: The present study was designed to identify the viral serotype in herpes genitalis patients in our locality, using PCR. Materials and Methods: The specimens from forty herpes genitalis patients were subjected to nested PCR and results were evaluated. Results: PCR was positive for HSV in 83% of cases, of which 58% were due to HSV-1. HSV-2 accounted for maximum number of recurrent herpes. Limitation: Higher sample size would have been more representative. Conclusion: A rising trend of type 1 HSV was observed in herpes genitalis in south India probably due to increasing practice of orogenital sex.
  3,716 116 -
Clinico-histological correlation in Hansen's disease: Three-year experience at a newly established tertiary care center in central India
Shruti Semwal, Deepti Joshi, Garima Goel, Dinesh Asati, Neelkamal Kapoor
November-December 2018, 63(6):465-468
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_525_17  PMID:30504973
Background: Hansen's disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It is characterized by a wide range of clinical and histological manifestations. Ridley–Jopling criteria are widely used for classifying leprosy. The demonstration of acid-fast bacilli on slit-skin smear examination and in skin biopsy aids in its diagnosis. Aim: The aim of the present study was to perform clinico-histological correlation of skin lesions in all patients with a clinical suspicion of Hansen's disease. Materials and Methods: The study included skin biopsies of all suspected cases of Hansen's disease received over a period of 3 years. Hematoxylin and eosin and Fite-Faraco stained sections of all cases were examined. Corresponding slit-skin smears, if available, were also reviewed. Results: During the study, a total of 116 cases were clinically diagnosed as Hansen's disease. Clinico-histological correlation was obtained in 62.9% of the cases (73/116). The most common histological subtype of Hansen's disease was borderline tuberculoid (TT) (40/116). Seven cases were diagnosed as lepromatous leprosy, five as TT, four as histoid, one as indeterminate, and three cases diagnosed as erythema nodosum leprosum. Fite-Faraco stain was positive in 33/73 cases. Out of 116 cases, slit-skin smears were available for 43 cases and were positive in 23 cases. Conclusion: Correlation between clinical, bacteriological, and morphological features is required for accurate classification of Hansen's disease. Clinical detection and morphological diagnosis of early lesions remain challenging, and the histological findings should always be interpreted in correlation with clinical findings.
  2,880 147 -
Profile of dermatophytosis in a tertiary care center
Mary Vineetha, S Sheeja, MI Celine, MS Sadeep, Seena Palackal, PE Shanimole, S Saranya Das
November-December 2018, 63(6):490-495
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_177_18  PMID:30504978
Background: The incidence of dermatophytosis is increasing over the last few years and there are many cases which are recurrent and chronic. Aim: The aim was to study the host and pathogen factors in dermatophytosis, to identify the species responsible, and to study the histopathological features of chronic dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: It was a descriptive study conducted in the Department of Dermatology for a period of 1 year and all patients who were clinically diagnosed as dermatophytosis were included. Isolated hair, and nail involvement were excluded from the study. Epidemiological parameters and treatment history were analyzed, scrapings, and fungal culture were done in all patients. Histopathological examination was done in patients with chronic dermatophytosis who had applied topical steroids. Results: Chronic dermatophytosis was seen in 68%; tinea corporis was the most common presentation; topical steroid application was seen in 63%; azoles were the most common antifungals used; varied morphologies such as follicular and nonfollicular papules, arciform lesions, pseudoimbricata were seen in steroid modified tinea. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the most common species isolated in culture, but rare species such as Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum audouinii were also isolated from chronic cases. Histopathology showed perifolliculitis in steroid modified tinea. Minimal inhibitory concentration was lowest for itraconazole in susceptibility studies. Conclusion: Chronicity in dermatophytosis is due to various factors such as topical steroid application, noncompliance, and change in predominant species.
  2,303 194 -
A case of ostraceous psoriasis with psoriatic arthritis in an AIDS patient
Minkee Park, Myeong Jin Park, Mi Soo Choi, Chan Hee Nam, Byung Cheol Park, Seung Phil Hong, Myung Hwa Kim
November-December 2018, 63(6):512-514
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_157_17  PMID:30504983
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may present with severe and atypical cutaneous diseases. Psoriasis also can develop in HIV patients associated with immune dysfunction and be presented as more severe and atypical manifestation. Furthermore, treatment of psoriasis in HIV patients can be complex and challenging. Herein, we report the case of a 50-year-old male with a 9-year history of HIV infection who developed an uncommon clinical variant of psoriasis with psoriatic arthritis and we discuss a possible pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease and possible treatment.
  2,340 58 -
Childhood leprosy: A retrospective descriptive study from Delhi
Sneha Ghunawat, Vineet Relhan, Shankila Mittal, Jaspriya Sandhu, Vijay Kumar Garg
November-December 2018, 63(6):455-458
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_99_17  PMID:30504971
Background: Childhood leprosy is an important marker of the status of the ongoing leprosy control programme, as it is an indicator of active disease transmission in the community. Despite achievement of elimination status of leprosy in 2005, the reported prevalence of childhood cases continue to be high. Method: A retrospective analysis of 11 year records of leprosy patients aged less than 15 years in a tertiary care hospital of central Delhi was carried out from 2005-2015. Data were analysed using SPSS 22.0 system. Result: A total of 113 (7.6%) cases of childhood leprosy were reported during the 11 year period from 2005-2015. Multibacillary cases constituted a total of 57 (50.4%), while paucibacillary constituted 56 (49.6%) cases. The M:F ratio noted was 2.5:1. Signs of reaction were found in 15% cases, while deformity was noted in 24.7% cases. Conclusion: The rate of childhood leprosy continues to be high. Lack of proper access to health facilities, ignorance among the general population, high susceptibility due to immature immune system etc make this population highly vulnerable. Limitations: Limited data of 11 years from an urban center were analyzed.
  1,941 139 -
Quality of life of persons affected by leprosy in an endemic district, West Bengal, India
Pitchaimani Govindharaj, Sampathkumar Srinivasan, Joydeepa Darlong
November-December 2018, 63(6):459-464
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_324_18  PMID:30504972
Introduction: Leprosy still remains a public health problem in India. Stigma and associated psychosocial problems are common in leprosy and may affect the quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to assess the QoL of the person affected by leprosy living in Purulia district, West Bengal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 358 persons affected by leprosy above the age of 18 years and who were reporting at tertiary leprosy referral hospital, Purulia, West Bengal, from April to July 2017. The World Health Organization QoL (WHOQOL-BREF) scale was used to measure the QoL and the scale had four domain; physical health, psychological health, social relationship, and environmental health. Results: Of the 358 respondents, 41% were female, 60% were aged between 18 and 45 years, and 58% were literate. Half of the participants (55%) were farmer and labor, and 75% of the participants' family income was below Rs. 5000 per month. One hundred and forty-four (40%) participants had physical disability. There was a highly significant difference seen among the person affected by leprosy between those with visible deformity and no deformity in four domains. The participants with visible deformity had lower QoL than the person without deformity. Conclusion: The study observed that the person affected by leprosy with visible deformity had lower QoL. Early detection and management would prevent the deformity and might improve the QoL of persons affected by leprosy.
  1,977 87 -
Epidemiology of subcutaneous mycoses in northeast India: A retrospective study
Shikha Verma, Binod Kumar Thakur, Vandana Raphael, Devinder Mohan Thappa
November-December 2018, 63(6):496-501
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_16_18  PMID:30504979
Background: Subcutaneous mycoses, although rare, are frequently reported from northeast India. Their spectrum varies with geographic region. Materials and Methods: We evaluated clinical records and histopathological features of subcutaneous mycoses cases seen during April 2013 to March 2017. Results: A total of 70 patients (44 males and 26 females) of subcutaneous mycoses were analyzed. Sixty-one percent of patients were 20–60 years old. Duration of the disease ranged from 3 months to 25 years. Most common site of involvement was the lower limb (32, 46%), followed by the upper limb (25, 36%). A history of trauma was obtained from 76% of patients. Eighty-seven percent of patients were from rural area. Ninety-two percent of patients were agricultural workers. There were 30 established cases of chromoblastomycosis and 16 cases of sporotrichosis. In 24 cases, subcutaneous mycosis was suspected clinically and showed some improvement to empirical itraconazole therapy. Multifocal lesions were seen in six patients. Complication of subcutaneous mycoses in the form of invasive squamous cell carcinoma was seen in one patient. On histopathological examination, verrucous hyperplasia was seen in 93% of cases. Granulomas with suppuration were seen in 77% of cases and granulomas without suppuration were seen in 14.3% of cases. Copper penny bodies were appreciated in 42.8% of cases. Fungal culture was positive only in 55.7% of cases. There was growth of Sporothrix schenckii in 16 patients, Fonsecaea sp. in 19, Cladosporium sp. in 3, and Curvularia sp. in 1. Conclusion: Chromoblastomycosis was the most common subcutaneous mycoses seen in northeast India followed by sporotrichosis. The diagnosis remained a challenge in a few cases as the culture positivity was very low. Suppurative granulomas in histopathology played a corroborative role. Therapeutic trial of itraconazole for 2 months was worth trying in such cases.
  1,971 92 -
Propolis for the treatment of onychomycosis
Flavia Franco Veiga, Maiara Ignacio Costa, Erika Seki Kioshima Cótica, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski, Melyssa Negri
November-December 2018, 63(6):515-517
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_365_17  PMID:30504984
Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection, considered as a public health problem because it is contagious and it interferes with the quality of life. It has long and difficult treatment, with many side effects and high cost. Propolis extract (PE) is a potential alternative to conventional antifungal agents because it has low cost, accessibility, and low toxicity. Herein, we report the favorable response of PE in onychomycosis in three elderly patients.
  1,794 77 -
Etiology of vaginal/cervical discharge syndrome: Analysis of data from a referral laboratory in eastern India
Ishita Ghosh, Bandhan Paul, Nibedita Das, Debabrata Bandyopadhyay, Manas Kumar Chakrabarti
November-December 2018, 63(6):484-489
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_296_18  PMID:30504977
Context: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) constitute important public health problem worldwide. Syndromic diagnosis of vaginal/cervical discharge (VCD) is often inaccurate leading to over- or under-treatment. Aims: This study aimed to ascertain the laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of VCD and their relative frequency in a group of patients presenting to a STI clinic in eastern India and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Data of 5301 consecutive patients with VCD were analyzed for etiological diagnosis and the findings were compared with laboratory data of 3110 asymptomatic cases. Statistical Analysis Used: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of clinical diagnosis of vaginal discharge syndrome were obtained considering the results of the laboratory diagnosis as gold standard. The strength of agreement was computed using Kappa statistic. Results: Of 5301 cases of VCD, 90.83% had STI/RTIs. The most prevalent infection was trichomoniasis (35.23%), followed by bacterial vaginosis (33.05%) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (19.67%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of vaginal discharge as an indicator of STI/RTI were 85.5%, 99.0%, 99.3%, and 80%, respectively, with agreement of 90.49% and kappa value of 0.8, indicating “almost perfect” agreement. Many cases with VCD also suffered from other STIs such as herpes simplex virus-2, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency syndrome, and syphilis and some asymptomatic cases suffered from one or more STIs. Conclusions: All patients with VCD with high-risk behavior should preferably undergo laboratory evaluation of the VCD syndrome to avoid over- or under-treatment.
  1,707 93 -
A treatise on topical corticosteroid in dermatology
Somenath Sarkar
November-December 2018, 63(6):530-531
  1,673 82 -
Stigma associated with sexually transmitted infections among patients attending suraksha clinic at a tertiary care hospital in northern India
Swastika Suvirya, Mukesh Shukla, Sucheta Pathania, Gopa Banerjee, Ajit Kumar, Adarsh Tripathi
November-December 2018, 63(6):469-474
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_145_18  PMID:30504974
Context: Illnesses affecting sexual organs and its correlation with improper sexual behavior lead to a negative attitude and discriminating behavior towards people affected by such disorders. Aim: The aim was to study the stigma associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among patients attending Suraksha clinic at a tertiary care hospital in northern India. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: The present study was conducted at Suraksha (STI) clinic, King George's Medical University, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 487 STI patients (clinically and/or laboratory-confirmed) were contacted telephonically, of which 49 finally participated in the study. Stigma was assessed using modified and pretested version of India HIV-related stigma scale adapted in context to sexually transmitted diseases. Statistical Analysis: Quantitative variables were expressed as mean with standard deviation, and independent sample t-test was used to compare the mean values. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean scores of enacted, vicarious, felt normative, and internalized stigma for 49 patients (out 487) who finally participated in the study were 0.04±0.11, 0.55±0.70, 1.21±0.96, and 0.86±0.67, respectively. Unmarried/divorced/separated patients had significantly higher vicarious and felt normative stigma scores as compared to married individuals. Mean score for felt normative stigma was significantly higher among homosexual/bisexuals in comparison to heterosexual individuals. Conclusions: Efforts should be directed towards the provision of integrated services through sexual health-oriented campaigns to address the stigma associated with STI in a more comprehensive way.
  1,425 58 -
Genomic reduction at TTC repeats in the bacterial genome of treated cases of Hansen's disease: A possible survival mechanism of Mycobacterium leprae
Abu Hena Hasanoor Reja, Abhishek De, Pradip Kumar Patra, Supratik Biswas, Umesh Duttagupta, Amrita Sil, Nibir Biswas, Surajita Bannerjee, Aarti Sarda, Basudev Bhattacharya
November-December 2018, 63(6):449-454
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_90_18  PMID:30504970
Introduction: Mycobacterium leprae has a small genome and a tendency of persisting as a very low-grade infection. The authors have shown earlier, that the changes in TTC repeats, in M. leprae genome may contribute to the restriction of the pathogenicity of the bacterium and its survival strategy in case of pure neural Hansen's disease. We suspect, that a similar genomic reduction if happens in treated cases of Hansen's disease, can be a determining factor for developing persisters and relapse. Aim: The present study aimed to find out if there was any evidence of genomic reduction in treated cases of Hansen's disease that showed microbiological nonresponse. Methods: Skin biopsies were taken from treated cases of Hansen's disease at tertiary centers in Kolkata and at Raipur who had bacterial index (BI) unchanged or increased compared to their pretreatment BI. Analysis for the mutation in rpoB gene and folP1 gene were done to rule out rifampicin and dapsone resistance, respectively. The entire TTC repeat region of the bacteria was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and was subjected to sequencing. The obtained sequences were then analyzed by CLUSTALW. Results: A total of 127 patients were included in the study of which in 52 the BI remained same and 75 had an increase in BI, even after 6 months of completion of multidrug therapy. Among the samples, 2 had positive rpoB gene mutation. No mutation was found in the folP1 gene. The TTC repeat of both the rpoB-resistant samples was found to have 17 copies, which matched their pretreatment copy number. In other 125 cases, 60 cases showed no change from their pretreatment TTC number. Of those 65 samples that showed evidence of genomic reduction, 11 samples showed one copy, 41 showed 2 copies, and 13 showed 3 copies deletion. We also observed a significant regional variation. Conclusion: We concluded that there was evidence of genomic reduction, which might lead to microbiological nonresponse in treated cases of Hansen's disease. This indicated a possibility of future persistence and relapse.
  1,367 96 -
Treponema Pallidum epidermotropism in nodular secondary syphilis
Jorge Magdaleno-Tapial, Cristian Valenzuela-Oñate, José María Ortiz-Salvador, Pablo Hernández-Bel, Víctor Alegre-De Miquel
November-December 2018, 63(6):509-511
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_232_18  PMID:30504982
Nodular secondary syphilis results from the hematogenous and lymphatic dissemination of spirochetes. Clinically, the lesions appear as partially infiltrated plaques or red-violaceous nodules, which can be solitary or multiple. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the formation of these infiltrated or granulomatous lesions. Among the most accepted are the specific hypersensitivity reactions to Treponema pallidum or the lenghty duration of the disease. We present a case of nodular syphilis where immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of multiple spirochetes invading the epidermis.
  1,408 50 -
Disease pattern among sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees: A hospital-based study
Krishna Talukdar, Ajay Chopra, Debdeep Mitra, Barnali Mitra
November-December 2018, 63(6):502-505
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_640_16  PMID:30504980
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have a definite role in the facilitation of HIV infection, which, in turn, also increases susceptibility to other STIs. Further, the social stigma and secrecy surrounding STIs create difficulty in estimating its true incidence and prevalence. Objective: The objective of this study was to know the pattern of diseases including different clinical presentations and final diagnosis among the STI clinic attendees. Materials and Methods: This study was a hospital-based study; a predesigned and pretested schedule was used to collect data from 140 patients after obtaining their consent. The study was carried out between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done using tabulation and proportion. Results and Observation: Genital ulcer (31.43%) was the most common clinical presentation among the attendees. Primary syphilis was the most common (17.14%) STI detected among the participants followed by herpes genitalis (16.43%). The most common mixed infection was primary syphilis with chancroid (36.36%) followed by herpes genitalis with primary syphilis (18.18%). Conclusion: Ulcerative STIs singly or in combination are more frequent than the non-ulcerative STIs. Further studies with large sample sizes are needed to obtain a more vivid picture.
  1,359 58 -
Genitocrural plane-topped papules in a young female
Anupama Bains, Saurabh Singh, Apoorvi Dubey, Meenakshi Rao
November-December 2018, 63(6):527-529
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_198_18  PMID:30504989
  1,295 79 -
Bladder carcinoma presenting as Paget's disease of vulva: An uncommon entity
Anurag Mehta, Poojan Agarwal
November-December 2018, 63(6):518-520
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_126_18  PMID:30504985
Paget's disease of the vulva is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm, accounting for <5% of all vulvar lesions. The underlying mechanisms of this disease are still poorly understood, however, diagnosing a Pagetoid lesion early is of prime importance as it may forewarn an underlying systemic malignancy. We discuss the case of an elderly female who was being conservatively treated for infectious lesion of the lower urinary tract and vulva for months. She was subsequently confirmed on histopathology with vulvar Paget's and underlying urothelial carcinoma, with the help of an extensive panel of immunohistochemistry.
  1,217 41 -
Acral and multicentric pigmented Bowen's disease in HIV-Positive patients: Report on two unusual cases
Monica Fernandez-Sanchez, Yann Charli-Joseph, Judith Domínguez-Cherit, Saul Guzman-Herrera, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
November-December 2018, 63(6):506-508
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_47_17  PMID:30504981
In situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCCis or Bowen's disease) is a common intraepidermal cutaneous malignancy with a low invasive potential. Acral Bowen's disease is usually solitary, but multiple acral SCCis have been reported. Pigmented Bowen's disease is typically unilesional and characterized by a hyperpigmented plaque with a velvety of keratotic surface, which can eventually simulate melanoma clinically. We describe two HIV-positive patients who presented with multiple pigmented SCCis involving the distal extremities. In patients with immunosuppression, the presence of multiple and hyperpigmented verrucae that clinically do not respond to adequate treatment should raise the differential diagnosis of SCC in situ.
  1,173 63 -
Atypical adult-onset pityriasis rubra pilaris in an HIV-positive adult male
Pragya Ashok Nair, Niral Sheth
November-December 2018, 63(6):522-524
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_141_18  PMID:30504987
  1,015 40 -
Dowling–Degos disease localized on vulva mimicking condyloma acuminata
Lai San Wong, Yi-Chien Yang
November-December 2018, 63(6):521-522
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_10_18  PMID:30504986
  1,009 38 -
The impact of fixed duration multidrug therapy on the host and the agent: A pilot study using clinical, bacteriological, and quality of life assessment tools
Ayush Keshav Singhal, Abhishek De, Abu Hena Hasanoor Reja, Ishad Aggarwal, Nidhi Sharma, Asad Ansari, Aarti Sarda
November-December 2018, 63(6):524-526
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_116_17  PMID:30504988
  751 39 -

November-December 2018, 63(6):0-0
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