Indian Journal of Dermatology
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   2009| July-September  | Volume 54 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 10, 2009

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Biologics in dermatologic therapy - An update
Arijit Coondoo
July-September 2009, 54(3):211-220
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55627  PMID:20161849
Biologics are protein molecules which are used in various diseases to target the specific points in the immunopathogenesis of the diseases. The molecules are produced by recombinant DNA technology. The molecules bind to the specific targets without interfering wtih rest of the pathogenetic pathways. Therefore the so called 'immunosuppressives' have, although, a broader broader spectrum of action on immune system, their side-effects are also equally more. The biologics, because of their spefic action on the immune system, have very little side effects. The biologics which have revolutionized the treatment of various dermatologic diseases have been discussed here.
  10,374 1,335 3
Bowenoid papulosis of the genitalia successfully treated with topical tazarotene : Areport of two cases
Veeranna Shastry, Jayadev Betkerur, Kushalappa
July-September 2009, 54(3):283-286
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55643  PMID:20161865
Bowenoid papulosis is a rare condition of the genital area caused by human papilloma virus. Clinically, it resembles viral wart and histopathologically Bowen's disease. We herein report two male patients presenting with multiple flat papules on the penis and scrotum. The second patient was HIV-positive. Histopathology showed features of bowenoid papulosis. Both the patients were treated with topical tazarotene gel 0.05%. Lesions cleared within 2 weeks in both the patients.Second patient had recurrences that cleared after retreatment with tazarotene.
  10,236 270 3
Cutaneous remodeling and photorejuvenation using radiofrequency devices
Mohamed Lotfy Elsaie
July-September 2009, 54(3):201-205
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55625  PMID:20161847
Radio frequency (RF) is electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range of 3-300GHz. The primary effects of RF energy on living tissue are considered to be thermal. The goal of the new devices based on these frequency ranges is to heat specific layers of the skin. The directed use of RF can induce dermal heating and cause collagen degeneration. Wound healing mechanisms promote the remodeling of collagen and wound contraction, which ultimately clinically enhances the appearance of mild to moderate skin laxity. Preliminary studies have reported efficacy in the treatment of laxity that involves the periorbital area and jowls. Because RF energy is not dependent on specific chromophore interaction, epidermal melanin is not at risk of destruction and treatment of all skin types is possible. As such, radiofrequency-based systems have been used successfully for nonablative skin rejuvenation, atrophic scar revision and treatment of unwanted hair, vascular lesions and inflammatory acne. The use of RF is becoming more popular, although a misunderstanding exists regarding the mechanisms and limitations of its actions. This concise review serves as an introduction and guide to many aspects of RF in the non ablative rejuvenation of skin.
  8,287 512 16
Chronic autoimmune urticaria : Where we stand ?
CL Goh, KT Tan
July-September 2009, 54(3):269-274
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55640  PMID:20161862
It is well-recognized that 30-40% of chronic idiopathic urticaria is autoimmune in nature. Chronic autoimmune urticaria is caused by anti-FcåRI and less frequently, by anti-IgE autoantibodies that lead to mast cell and basophil activation, thereby giving rise to the release of histamine and other proinflammatory mediators. Activation of the classical complement pathway and formation of C5a are important in dermal mast cell activation. C5a is also a neutrophil and eosinophil chemoattractant. Chronic autoimmune urticaria has been found to be associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. The autologous serum skin test is used as a screening test for chronic autoimmune urticaria and has a sensitivity and specificity of about 70 and 80%, respectively. The current gold standard diagnostic test is the basophil histamine release assay. The treatment of chronic autoimmune urticaria, as in chronic idiopathic urticaria, is with H1 antihistamines. Oral corticosteroids may be used during acute flares. Refractory cases have been shown to respond to cyclosporine and other immunomodulators. The prevalence of chronic autoimmune urticaria in Singapore is similar to that reported in Western countries at about 42%. The presence of thyroid autoimmunity appears to be higher than reported, with 22.5% of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria here, exhibiting presence of thyroid autoantibodies.
  8,054 463 11
Management of difficult urticaria
Sudha Yadav, AK Bajaj
July-September 2009, 54(3):275-279
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55641  PMID:20161863
Chronic urticaria, a major health problem causing patient's distress, induces often physicians' dilemma while dealing with its etiology, investigations and management. Clinical approach of such cases should include apart from clinical history and physical examination laboratory investigations like routine blood test, thyroid profile, etc. as well as sometimes special test like autologous serum skin test. Management includes reassurance, avoidance of precipitating factors, treatment of underlying disorders, and non-pharmacological approach along with pharmacotherapy. First line drug therapy comprises non-sedative and sedative antihistamines, second line doxepin, nifedipine, leukotriene-inhibitors, sulfasalazine, etc. and third line cyclosporine, dapsone, colchicin, etc.
  7,569 726 2
Hematohidrosis - A rare clinical phenomenon
HR Jerajani, Bhagyashri Jaju, MM Phiske, Nitin Lade
July-September 2009, 54(3):290-292
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55645  PMID:20161867
Hematohidrosis is a very rare condition of sweating blood. A case of hematohidrosis is reported. There are only few reports in the literature.
  8,037 231 8
Immune zones in leprosy
TS Rajashekar, Gurcharan Singh, L Chandra Naik
July-September 2009, 54(3):206-210
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55626  PMID:20161848
Leprosy affects mainly those areas of skin which have a relatively lower temperature and are more exposed to trauma. Certain zones like scalp, palms and soles, genitalia, groins, axillae, eyelids, transverse band of skin over lumboscaral area, midline of back and perineum have been described to be immune to the development of lesions in leprosy. But clinical, histological and bacteriological evidence of involvement of these so called immune zones though infrequent have been documented. Hence, these immune zones should be termed as relatively immune, rather than absolutely immune zones of leprosy.
  5,548 888 -
Low chromate diet in dermatology
Ashimav Deb Sharma
July-September 2009, 54(3):293-295
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55646  PMID:20161868
Chromium is an essential trace element found in soil, water, air, and in the biosphere. It is the fourth most common element in the earth's crust, mostly used to manufacture stainless steel and other alloys. Chromate allergy is not uncommon and its prevalence rate is reported to be 6%. Once developed, it tends to persist for a long time. Chromate is present in most of the dietary items. Chromate content in food often varies considerably from place to place. However, certain foods are routinely high in chromate content. Chromate in the diet of a chromate-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low chromate concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of chromate per day. This can influence outcome of the disease, especially chronic vesicular hand eczema due to chromate sensitivity, and can benefit a chromate-sensitive patient.
  5,475 193 2
The 'Holi' dermatoses : Annual spate of skin diseases following the spring festival in India
Sudip Kumar Ghosh, Debabrata Bandyopadhyay, Gobinda Chatterjee, Debabrata Saha
July-September 2009, 54(3):240-242
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55632  PMID:20161854
Background : 'Holi' is an annual spring festival celebrated all over India. The central ritual of Holi involves throwing of colors on one another. Playing with toxic industrial dyes often results in various dermatological complaints in a significant number of people immediately following the celebration. Aims : To describe patterns of various skin manifestations directly or indirectly related to the use of different colors in the celebration of Holi. Methods : Observational clinical study on consecutive patients presenting to a teaching hospital in Kolkata, India. Results : Forty-two patients with a mean age of 24.2 years were studied. Itching was the commonest symptom (25, 59.5%), followed by burning sensation, pain, oozing, and scaling. Eleven patients' symptoms were attributed to activities related to preparation of colors and the removal of colors from the skin surface. Eczematous lesions were the most common pattern (24, 57.1%) followed by erosions, xerosis and scaling, erythema, urticaria, acute nail-fold inflammation, and abrasions. Thirteen (30.9%) patients reported aggravation of preexisting dermatoses (acne, eczema, and paronychia). Secondary pyoderma occurred in 3 (7.1%). Face was the commonest site affected (24, 57.1%), followed by dorsum of the hands, scalp, forearm, palms, arms, and trunk. Ocular complaints in the form of redness, watering, and grittiness occurred in 7 (16.7%) patients. Conclusion : Various forms of cutaneous manifestations, often associated with ocular complaints, occur commonly due to Holi colors. Public awareness and regulatory actions are needed to avoid these preventable conditions.
  4,813 364 9
What's new in urticaria ?
Sanjay Ghosh
July-September 2009, 54(3):280-282
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55642  PMID:20161864
Urticaria, a perplexing disease of ever-changing explanations, is being renovated almost everyday by newer facts and findings accumulated from different parts of the globe. Cost of the urticaria treatment gradually grows higher and higher whereas the ailment disturbs the quality of life very adversely. Disorder of coagulation cascade has recently thrown some new light into its mechanism. Non-allergic angioedema induced by bradykinin caused by genetic defects and ACE-inhibitors has also been noted. Role of H. pylori in the pathogenesis of urticaria has also been re-reviewed. Urticaria could sometimes mimic erythema multiforme and is termed urticaria multiforme. Skin biopsy showed features of vasculitis in good number of urticaria irrespective of clinical features. Contact sensitization showed positive results in certain cases thus proving contact urticaria. Topical clobetasol, systemic omalizumab and NB UVB have shown promising results in certain forms of urticaria.
  4,560 508 1
Benign and malignant skin lesions in renal transplant recipients
H Ghaninejad, AH Ehsani, M Ghiasi, P Noormohammadpour, E Najafi, G Naderi, M Ganji, M Mirnezami, R Nezami, P Kiani
July-September 2009, 54(3):247-250
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55634  PMID:20161856
Background: Skin lesions - benign and malignant - occur frequently in organ transplant recipients receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy. These patients are at greater risk of skin cancers. Aims: To study dermatologic problems in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Methods: One hundred patients (53 men and 47 women) were consecutively examined for benign and malignant skin complications since transplantation in Razi Hospital in Tehran Medical University. The main immunosuppressive therapy regimen in these patients was a combination of prednisolone, azathioprine, and cyclosporine. Results: The early and most common complication was cosmetic side effects that occurred in 98% patients. Skin infections occurred in 83% of the patients and most of them were viral infections (65%), especially of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in 40% of the patients. We found six cases of malignancy in these patients in that four cases were skin cancers, including one case of SCC, one BCC, and two cases of Kaposi's sarcoma. Dermatologic problems occur most frequently in RTRs, especially skin cancers which have higher frequency in these patients than general population, particularly, Kaposi sarcoma. Sun exposure has an important role in developing epithelial skin cancers following transplantation. The age of developing skin cancer in these patients was early than normal population. Conclusion: Our results emphasize the importance of dermatologic examinations and monitoring RTRs to obtain an early diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous manifestations.
  4,198 242 4
Cell proliferation and cytokine induction by TNF-α of psoriatic keratinocytes are not different from normal keratinocytes in vitro
Hidetoshi Takahashi, Hitomi Tsuji, Yoshio Hashimoto, Akemi Ishida-Yamamoto, Hajime Iizuka
July-September 2009, 54(3):237-239
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55631  PMID:20161853
Background: Recent studies indicate that various cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-á (TNF-á) play an essential role in the induction and maintenance of psoriatic lesion. Aims: To compare the cell proliferation of keratinocytes by various cytokines and TNF-á-induced cytokine secretion among normal keratinocytes, uninvolved, and involved keratinocytes. Methods: The keratinocytes from normal skin, uninvolved, and involved psoriasis were cultured in the presence of IL-6, IL-8, epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) epiregulin, amphiregulin, and TNF-α and then MTT assay for keratinocytes proliferation was performed. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8, EGF, HGF, TGF-α, epiregulin, and amphiregulin were compared among these keratinocytes. Results: IL-6, IL-8, EFG, TGF-á, epiregulin, and amphiregulin, but not TNF-α increased keratinocyte proliferation of normal, psoriatic uninvolved, and involved skin. The increased cell proliferation by these cytokines and growth factors were not different among the keratinocytes derived from normal skin, uninvolved, and involved psoriasis. The significant induction of TNF-α increased IL-6, IL-8, EGF, HGF, TGF-α, epiregulin, and amphiregulin, but the increase in these cytokines and growth factors were not different among normal skin, uninvolved, and involved psoriasis. Conclusion: Cell proliferation by various cytokines and growth factors and TNF-α-induced cytokine secretion are not different between normal and psoriatic keratinocytes. α
  4,143 209 6
Oxidative stress in experimental vitiligo C57Bl/6 mice
Akrem Jalel, Mrabet Yassine, Mohamed Hedi Hamdaoui
July-September 2009, 54(3):221-224
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55628  PMID:20161850
  3,980 249 7
Determination of the relationship between basal cell carcinoma and human papilloma virus, based on immunohistochemistry staining method
M Mokhtari, A Mesbah, P Rajabi, M Ali Rajabi, A Chehrei, K Mougouei
July-September 2009, 54(3):225-228
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55629  PMID:20161851
Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer among Caucasians, and in most cases, occurs in the sun-exposed areas. In recent years, in addition to many other etiologies such as exposure to UV radiation, and occasionally xeroderma pigmentosa, burns, tattoos, and pox scars, human papillomavirus (HPV) is also considered to have an etiologic role. Different studies were conducted with varied results in this regard. Aims: We evaluate this plausible relationship between HPV and BCC by means of immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining method. Methods: This is an analytic cross-sectional study in which 160 samples were selected randomly consisting of 80 BCC lesions and 80 safe margins. Sampling was done among paraffin-embedded blocks in pathology ward of Kashani and Alzahra hospitals, Isfahan-Iran, from 2004-2007. A section of each block was IHC stained for HPV immunoreactivity (DAKO, Denmark). This was followed by microscopic evaluation in terms of being positive or negative. Results: Fifty seven point five percent of the samples belonged to men and the others to women. In 10%, HPV marker was positive, both in lesion and margin. In 83.8% neither the lesions nor the margins were immunoreactive for HPV. Only in 5 cases (6.3%) the lesion was positive and the margin was negative for this marker. There was no case of immunoreactivity for HPV marker in margins, while it was negative in lesions. Our study results followed by McNemar analysis did not show a significant relationship between BCC incidence and HPV existence. This was consistent in both genders ( P > 0.05, power > 90%). Conclusion: In this study we did not find a significant relationship between BCC and HPV, but based on review of articles it appears that large multicentric studies are to be conducted in this regard.
  3,956 199 1
Contact urticaria : Present scenario
Ruchi Bhatia, Ali Alikhan, Howard I Maibach
July-September 2009, 54(3):264-268
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55639  PMID:20161861
Immunological contact urticaria is a hypersensitivity reaction that appears on the skin following contact with an eliciting substance. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanism and pathogenesis of this reaction have altered its classification, diagnosis, and treatment. We discuss classification, epidemiology, diagnosis, testing, and treatment options that are available to patients with contact urticaria.
  3,487 340 1
Serum mucosa-associated epithelial chemokine in atopic dermatitis : A specific marker for severity
MHM Ezzat, KY Shaheen
July-September 2009, 54(3):229-236
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55630  PMID:20161852
  3,543 167 1
Mucocutaneous changes in tuberous sclerosis complex: A clinical profile of 27 Indian patients
Sudip Kumar Ghosh, Debabrata Bandyopadhyay, Gobinda Chatterjee, Arghyaprasun Ghosh, Sharmila Sarkar, Somenath Sarkar
July-September 2009, 54(3):255-257
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55636  PMID:20161858
Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disease resulting in a wide array of clinical manifestations, primarily affecting the skin and central nervous system. Mucocutaneous features play a very important role in the recognition of this syndrome. Aims: To review the prevalence and patterns of cutaneous manifestations in tuberous sclerosis, in a group of patients from eastern India. Methods: Observational clinical study on twenty-seven consecutive patients of tuberous sclerosis collected during a period of four years. Results: Most were between 10-20 years of age; the male to female ratio was 2:1. Family history was found in two-thirds. The classical triad of tuberous sclerosis was present in only nine (33.3%) patients. Adenoma sebaceum was the most common cutaneous feature (100%), followed by hypomelanotic macules (92.6%), connective tissue nevi (66.6%), and Koenen's tumors (33.3%). Oral mucosal fibromas were seen in six (22.22%) patients. Fibromatous plaque over forehead and scalp was seen in three patients. Limitation of the study was small size of study sample. Conclusion: Prominent mucocutaneous changes are extremely common manifestation of TSC, which may provide crucial diagnostic clues for primary care physicians.
  3,408 255 5
Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris : An unusual presentation
Vijay K Jain, Kamal Aggarwal, Sarika Jain, Sunita Singh
July-September 2009, 54(3):287-289
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55644  PMID:20161866
Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis occurring in previously sensitized individuals with a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a very large hypertrophic lupus vulgaris lesion over left side of chest since 22 years. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous infiltration without caseation necrosis. The Mantoux reaction was strongly positive. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris of such a giant size and that too at an unusual site is extremely rare and hence is being reported.
  3,362 188 2
Lupus anticoagulant and leg ulcers in sickle cell anemia
Edeghonghon E Olayemi, Godwin N Bazuaye
July-September 2009, 54(3):251-254
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55635  PMID:20161857
Background: The cause of chronic leg ulcer (CLU) in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) is unknown; it has been attributed to hypercoagulability associated with the disease. Recently, it has been suggested that a subset of SCA patients may be prone to developing CLU and that hemolysis may be an underlying factor in the development of CLU. The lupus anticoagulant (LA) is an antiphospholipid antibody (aPLa), these antibodies have been described in patients with SCA. Aims: This study was designed to determine the frequency of LA in SCA patients with CLU compared with those without CLU. Materials and Methods: Study design is a descriptive, cross-sectional one. Thirty-three SCA patients with CLU and 33 patients without CLU were screened for the presence of LA using the Kaolin clotting time (KCT), which is an important assay, and Kaolin clotting time index was calculated. Means were compared using the students' t test, proportions were compared using the chi-square test, level of significance was set at 0.05, odds ratio was calculated. Results: About 18.18% of patients with CLU had LA, compared with 6.06% among controls ( P < 0.05); odds ratio was 3.44 (95% CI 0.64 - 18.51). Conclusions: We conclude that SCA patients with CLU may be more likely to develop LA, and this may be related to the degree of hemolysis. Further studies are required to find out if CLU and LA are a result of hemolysis or if LA is responsible for the higher incidence of hemolysis and CLU found among these patients.
  3,260 179 1
Patch testing with dermatophagoides and its correlation with chronic eczema and atopic dermatitis
Chetna Kapur, Shrutakirthi D Shenoi, Smitha S Prabhu, C Balachandran
July-September 2009, 54(3):243-246
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55633  PMID:20161855
Background: Chronic eczema is commonly encountered in the Indian set up. So also is atopic dermatitis. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides) are implicated in various diseases like atopic dermatitis, asthma, and perennial rhinitis. It has also been proven that patch testing with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) is important for detection of contact sensitization in chronic dermatitis. Aims: To study clinical characteristics of DP mix positive patients with regards to chronic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. Methods: Dermatology outpatients presenting to the department of Skin and STD of Kasturba Medical College (KMC), with clinically diagnosed atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema were chosen for the study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were well demarked. Eighty six randomly selected patients of dermatitis were subjected to patch testing with standard series and DP mix. Results: Of the 86, 50 (58%) showed positive reaction to DP mix. Among these positive patients, chronic dermatitis was seen in 42 (84%) with involvement of exposed parts in 37 (74%). Atopic dermatitis was seen in 19 patients (38%) from DP positive group whereas it was observed in 4 patients (17%) from the other group. Conclusion: Dermatophagoides mix positivity was statistically significant in chronic eczema as well as atopic dermatitis. Patch testing is an important tool to detect delayed type allergy to house dust mite.
  3,131 264 -
Anti-idiotype antibodies in immune regulation of ANCA associated vasculitis
Vandana D Pradhan, Kanjaksha Ghosh
July-September 2009, 54(3):258-262
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55637  PMID:20161859
Background: Anti-idiotype antibodies (anti-ids) have a potential role in the immunomodulation of various autoimmune disorders. The immunoregulatory role of anti-idiotypic antibodies in ANCA-associated vasculitis needs to be studied. This study was conducted in clinically and histopathologically diagnosed ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients. Methods: Anti-ids were tested in 100 AAV patients of which 80 had anti-MPO and 20 had anti-PR3 antibodies at various stages of disease over a period of 2-3 years. The disease activity was estimated by the Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS). The affinity-purified ANCA F(ab')2 fragments were prepared using three each of anti-MPO and anti-PR3 high titer sera and were used as idiotype coats for anti-idiotype antibody detection by ELISA. Positivity was confirmed by fluid phase inhibition ELISA. Results: Patients who went into remission showed 53.8% anti-ids to anti-MPO and 52.9% to anti-PR3 with low BVAS values (0-8), whereas in patients with active disease, only 12.5% had anti-ids to anti-MPO and 10% had anti-ids to anti-PR3 with comparatively high BVAS (18-32), while five cases who had relapse (BVAS 18-20) did not have anti-ids to anti-MPO or anti-PR3. An inverse correlation was noted between ANCA and anti-ids ( r = -0.901). Conclusions: High prevalence of anti-ids in remission cases and low prevalence in active cases with absence of anti-ids in relapse cases as well as an inverse correlation of ANCA and anti-ids indicate its beneficial effect on the disease process, thus suggesting the dynamic role of anti-idiotype networks in the immunoregulation of AAV.
  2,634 169 1
Congenital bathing trunk nevus with ambiguous genitalia : A rare coincidence
Devi Basanti, Mohanty Prasenjeet, Patro Nibedita, Panda Maitreyee, Swain Basanta
July-September 2009, 54(3):298-299
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55649  PMID:20161871
  2,453 121 -
Hand-foot syndrome due to capecitabine
Amar Surjushe, Resham Vasani, Sudhir Medhekar, Minal Thakre, DG Saple
July-September 2009, 54(3):301-302
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55651  PMID:20161873
  2,349 169 3
Acrokeratosis verruciformis of HOPF associated with dilated cardiomyopathy
Feroze Kaliyadan, Jayasree Manoj, S Venkitakrishnan
July-September 2009, 54(3):296-297
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55647  PMID:20161869
  2,218 118 1
Alkaptonuria associated with degenerative collagenous palmar plaques
Biju Vasudevan, MPS Sawhney, s Radhakrishnan
July-September 2009, 54(3):299-301
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55650  PMID:20161872
  1,947 126 1
Sanjay Ghosh
July-September 2009, 54(3):263-263
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55638  PMID:20161860
  1,586 264 -
"Interaction between BCL2 and JUN B in primary cutaneous lymphoma : A gene ontology approach": A comment on the new approach in dermatology
Viroj Wiwanitkit
July-September 2009, 54(3):298-298
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.55648  PMID:20161870
  1,628 77 -
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