Indian Journal of Dermatology
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   2008| April-June  | Volume 53 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 3, 2008

 
 
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STUDIES
Alopecia areata and autoimmunity: A clinical study
Emy Abi Thomas, RS Kadyan
April-June 2008, 53(2):70-74
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41650  PMID:19881991
Alopecia areata (AA) frequently occur in association with other autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disorders, anemias and other skin disorders with autoimmune etiology. Despite numerous studies related to individual disease associations in alopecia areata, there is paucity of literature regarding comprehensive studies on concomitant cutaneous and systemic diseases. The present study has been designed to determine if there is a significant association between alopecia areata and other autoimmune diseases. This study covers 71 patients with the diagnosis of alopecia areata as the case group and 71 patients with no evidence of alopecia areata as the control group. Among the cutaneous diseases associated with AA, atopic dermatitis (AD) showed maximum frequency with an O/E ratio of 2.5, which indicates that it is two to three times more common in patients with alopecia areata. In our study, thyroid disorders showed the highest frequency with on O/E ratio of 3.2 and a P value of 0.01, which is statistically highly significant. Among the thyroid disorders, hypothyroidism was the most frequent association (14.1%) in our study. Since systemic involvement is not infrequent in patients with alopecia areata, it is imperative to screen these patients for associated disorders, particularly atopy, thyroid diseases, anemias and other autoimmune disorders, especially if alopecia areata is chronic, recurrent and extensive.
  14 13,090 601
REVIEW ARTICLE
Unraveling the mystery of vernix caseosa
Gurcharan Singh, G Archana
April-June 2008, 53(2):54-60
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41645  PMID:19881987
Vernix caseosa is a white, creamy, naturally occurring biofilm covering the skin of the fetus during the last trimester of pregnancy. Vernix coating on the neonatal skin protects the newborn skin and facilitates extra-uterine adaptation of skin in the first postnatal week if not washed away after birth. It consists of water-containing corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. The strategic location of the vernix on the fetal skin surface suggests participation in multiple overlapping functions required at birth, such as barrier to water loss, temperature regulation, and innate immunity. Vernix seems to perform various integral roles during transition of the fetus from intra-uterine to extra-uterine life. It has also found various interesting diagnostic and prognostic implications in this arena. Thus, it continues to be an intriguing topic of interest among the medical fraternity to understand its detailed biology and function in the fetus and also to put its naturally endowed characteristics to use in the adult population.
  8 25,381 539
CME ARTICLE
Latest laser and light-based advances for ethnic skin rejuvenation
Mohamed Lotfy Elsaie, Heather Woolery Lloyd
April-June 2008, 53(2):49-53
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41643  PMID:19881986
Background: Advances in nonablative skin rejuvenation technologies have sparked a renewed interest in the cosmetic treatment of aging skin. More options exist now than ever before to reverse cutaneous changes caused by long-term exposure to sunlight. Although Caucasian skin is more prone to ultraviolet light injury, ethnic skin (typically classified as types IV to VI) also exhibits characteristic photoaging changes. Widespread belief that inevitable or irreversible textural changes or dyspigmentation occurs following laser- or light-based treatments, has been challenged in recent years by new classes of devices capable of protecting the epidermis from injury during treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to review recent clinical advances in the treatment of photoaging changes in ethnic skin. This article provides a basis for the classification of current advances in nonablative management of ethnic skin.
  6 10,985 647
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Autologous serum skin test in children
Kiran V Godse
April-June 2008, 53(2):61-63
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.39576  PMID:19881988
Chronic urticaria in children occurs less often than adults. Out of 17 children (age group 6-16 years, [Table 2]), six children (2 boys and 4 girls, 35%) showed a positive result in form of wheal and flare more than 1.5 mm than saline control.Autologous serum skin test is cheap, is easy to perform, and, if performed as appropriate, it has good sensitivity and even better specificity at detecting autoantibodies in children.
  5 8,135 316
CORRESPONDENCE
Monilethrix in three generations
Gurcharan Singh, K Siddalingappa, KC Nischal, L Chandra Naik, K Lokanatha
April-June 2008, 53(2):99-100
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41660  PMID:19882001
  4 3,226 123
Azithromycin in ACNE: A protagonist for fixed drug reaction?
Pratik Gahalaut, Emy Alexander
April-June 2008, 53(2):100-101
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41661  PMID:19882002
  3 4,762 217
CASE REPORTS
Lichen scrofulosorum: An important marker of occult tuberculosis
Naina Dogra, Shazia Shah, Devraj Dogra
April-June 2008, 53(2):91-92
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41656  PMID:19881997
Lichen scrofulosorum is a tuberculid that is usually seen in children or young adults. Although a rare occurrence, this tuberculid is an important marker of occult tuberculosis, which may not be detected otherwise. We report here a case of lichen scrofulosorum in a ten year-old boy with typical grouped lichenoid papules on the trunk associated with axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis.
  1 4,741 194
Olmsted syndrome
Pramod Kumar, PK Sharma, HK Kar
April-June 2008, 53(2):93-95
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41657  PMID:19881998
Olmsted syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the combination of periorificial, keratotic plaques and bilateral palmoplantar keratoderma. New associated features are being reported. Olmsted syndrome is particularly rare in a female patient, and we report such a case in a six year-old Indian girl, who presented with keratoderma of her soles since birth and on her palms since the age of two years along with perioral and perinasal hyperkeratosis. She had sparse, light brown, thin hair. Although the psychomotor development of the child was normal until 18 months of age, the keratoderma plaques had restricted the child's mobility after that stage.
  1 5,368 185
HIV and lupus erythematosus: A diagnostic dilemma
Feroze Kaliyadan
April-June 2008, 53(2):80-82
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41652  PMID:19881993
A 30-year-old female patient presented to us with erythema over the face and raised hyperpigmented, scaly skin lesions, mainly over photo-exposed parts, of about 5-month duration. Based on her clinical features and initial laboratory finding, we considered the possibility of a connective tissue disease. On further follow-up, she was found to be human immunodeficiency virus positive (confirmed by Western blot).
  1 6,306 213
A case of multiple myeloma presenting as a bullous dermatosis
Ulker Gul, Arzu Kilic, Muzeyyen Gonul, Seray Kulcu Cakmak, Aylin Okcu Heper
April-June 2008, 53(2):83-84
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41653  PMID:19881994
Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell proliferative disorder that produces a monoclonal immunoglobulin protein. The skin involvement and the development of bullous disease are rarely seen features in multiple myeloma. We present a 55-year-old man with a longstanding, large, tense bullous eruption and hypertrophic scars over his body accompanied recently with weight loss and fatique. He had no response to the previous treatments, which included oral glucocorticoids and dapsone. Histologic examination of the lesions revealed subepidermal bullae, while no immunoflourescence staining was observed. In a further detailed labarotory examination, multiple myeloma was detected. After the treatment of multiple myeloma with chemotherapy, the lesions regressed. Patients with longstanding, recurrent, unusual bullous eruption should be investigated for the development of multiple myeloma.
  1 4,563 116
CORRESPONDENCE
Perforating lichenoid reaction to amlodipine
Chembolli Lakshmi, CR Srinivas, Bindu Ramachandran, Suma B Pillai, V Nirmala
April-June 2008, 53(2):98-99
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41659  PMID:19882000
  1 3,786 139
Cyclosporine in chronic idiopathic urticaria with positive autologous serum skin test
KV Godse
April-June 2008, 53(2):101-102
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41662  PMID:19882003
  1 4,928 207
STUDIES
A study on the etiological agent and clinico-mycological correlation of fingernail onychomycosis in eastern India
Nilay Kanti Das, Pramit Ghosh, Suchibrata Das, Susmita Bhattacharya, Rathindra Nath Dutta, Sujit Ranjan Sengupta
April-June 2008, 53(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41651  PMID:19881992
Background: Onychomycosis manifests itself in various forms, notably onychodystrophy, onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis, or nail-plate discoloration. Not necessarily nail changes mentioned here should always be of fungal origin. Objective: The present study is planned to get an idea about etiological agent and clinical correlation in fingernail onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: Nail-clipping and subungual debris of patients with above mentioned nail changes were subjected to KOH preparation. Culture was done on SDA and SDCCA media. Species identification was done by colony character, pigment production, LCB staining, and some special tests like germ tube test, etc. Results: Out of 85 cases, 44 cases showed the growth of fungus, amounting to 51.76% positivity. Among those 44 cases, the infective fungal agents were predominantly dermatophytes (50%), and the rest were due to yeasts (27.27%) and moulds (22.72%). Among the different species, Trichophyton rubrum (29.54%) accounted for the majority of dermatophytes; Candida albicans (11.78%) was the predominant yeast; and Aspergillus niger (18.18%) the commonest mold. No significant association could be established between the different fungal species and various clinical manifestations. Positive results were found more with fungal culture (95.45%) than KOH preparation (63.64%). Conclusion: The results show that nail changes are not always a reliable marker for predicting the causative organism, and relying only on the clinical manifestation (i.e., pattern of nail changes) in the diagnosis of onychomycosis is often misleading. The present study highlights the need for microbiological confirmation in case of onychomycosis.
  1 6,616 392
CASE REPORTS
Rare presentation of Kyrle's disease in siblings
Seethalakshmi Viswanathan, Swati D Narurkar, Aruna Rajpal, NG Nagpur, SS Avasare
April-June 2008, 53(2):85-87
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41654  PMID:19881995
Background: Kyrle's disease is a rare variant of primary perforating dermatosis. Its occurrence in a familial setting, especially in children, is extremely uncommon. Similar appearing skin lesions have been described in adults, secondary to metabolic disorders, infective agents as well as exposure to chemicals. We present a rare case of this genodermatosis in two siblings. Materials and Methods: Two siblings of a non-consanguineous marriage came with generalized discrete papular lesions with a central keratotic plug. All biochemical and serological investigations were within normal limits. Serial sections of the biopsy revealed typical epidermal invaginations filled with parakeratotic debris and perforation into the dermis with accompanying granulomatous reaction. Results and Conclusions: A careful history, detailed routine investigations and serial sections of the skin biopsy are required to demonstrate the typical morphology and stages of evolution of Kyrle's disease. This helps to differentiate the rare primary Kyrle's disease from other primary and secondary keratotic lesions. Due to the familial occurrence, screening of relatives of an index case is recommended.
  - 3,788 152
Bart's syndrome
Aruna Rajpal, R Mishra, K Hajirnis, M Shah, N Nagpur
April-June 2008, 53(2):88-90
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41655  PMID:19881996
A new-born girl presented with congenital absence of skin on the right leg and nail abnormalities. On second day of life, she developed multiple blistering skin lesions and died on seventeenth day of life. A positive family history of two other siblings, one male and one female who had blistering skin lesions and died within one and a half month of birth, was present. The diagnosis of Bart's syndrome was made on clinical presentation, family history and skin biopsy.
  - 6,769 197
CURRENT PERSPECTIVE
Pigmentary mosaicism: An update
Rajoo Thapa
April-June 2008, 53(2):96-97
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41658  PMID:19881999
  - 6,188 292
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of the relationship between androgenetic alopecia and demodex infestation
Javidi Zari, Fata Abdolmajid, Maleki Masood, Mashayekhi Vahid, Nahidi Yalda
April-June 2008, 53(2):64-67
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41647  PMID:19881989
Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically ( P = 0.0787). Most of patients (85.4%) had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex.
  - 7,238 266
STUDIES
Foot eczema: The role of patch test in determining the causative agent using standard series
KS Priya, Ganesh Kamath, Jacintha Martis, D Sukumar, Narendra J Shetty, Ramesh M Bhat, B Nanda Kishore
April-June 2008, 53(2):68-69
DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.41649  PMID:19881990
Foot dermatitis refers to the predominant involvement of feet in the eczematous process. This study is undertaken to determine the clinical pattern and causative agent in foot eczema and to evaluate the role of patch testing in determining the causative agent of foot eczema. Data was collected from 50 patients with foot eczema, who attended the out-patient department. The patch test was performed using Indian standard series. Patch test was positive in 88% of the patients. The most common site affected was the dorsal aspect of the foot (48%) and scaly plaque was the predominant morphological pattern. The highest number of patients (24%) showed positive reactions to mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and the lowest (4%) to neomycin sulfate. Rubber and rubber chemicals have been reported worldwide to be the most common sensitizer causing foot eczema. Thus, patch test has a major role in finding out the cause of foot eczema.
  - 5,682 282
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