Indian Journal of Dermatology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
March-April 2018
Volume 63 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 91-192

Online since Friday, April 6, 2018

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Hidradenitis suppurativa: Inside and out Highly accessed article p. 91
Sharmila Patil, Astuty Apurwa, Nitin Nadkarni, Shweta Agarwal, Parag Chaudhari, Manjyot Gautam
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, disabling, suppurative disease characterized by deep tender subcutaneous nodules; complicated by fibrosis and extensive sinuses affecting primarily the apocrine gland bearing areas. It affects all races in early 20s with greater prevalence seen in women (3 to 5:1). The estimated disease prevalence is 1 - 4 %. The disease is speculated to be caused by follicular structural abnormalities with associated risk factors as smoking, obesity, positive family history and shaving. Certain co-morbidities can also be seen such as inflammatory bowel disease, spondyloarthropathies, epithelial tumors, pyoderma gangrenosum etc. Treatment modalities include counseling of the patient to lose weight if obese, to wear loose clothes, stop smoking and maintain good hygiene. Topical antibiotics, like 1% clindamycin, have shown to give good results along with benzoyl peroxide wash. Orally cocktail of antibiotics can be given, though biologicals remain the best treatment option. Surgical excision can be done in later stages and in recalcitrant cases.
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Stamping a case of cutaneous adverse drug reaction: Proving beyond causality assessment p. 99
Sudip Das, Projna Biswas, Dayamay Pal, Abhishek De
Different types of skin testing with a suspected drug have been reported to be helpful in determining the cause of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs). It is of utmost importance for practicing dermatologists to have a first hand knowledge of different types of skin tests available in a case of CADR. In each suspected case, a detailed investigation with the suspected agent and correlation of the positive skin reaction with clinical variant of CADR is advocated. Drug skin tests are performed 6 weeks to 6 months after complete healing of the CADR. Drug patch tests are performed similar to the methods used in patch testing in studying contact dermatitis. The commercialized form of the drug used by the patient is tested at 30% dilution. The pure drug is tested at 10% dilution. In severe CADR, drug patch tests should be performed at lower concentrations. It is also of value to test on the most affected site of the initial CADR.
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Unusual and interesting adverse cutaneous drug reactions p. 107
Vaishali Masatkar, Ashok Nagure, Lalit Kumar Gupta
Any drug can cause any rash! Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) are great mimickers and can be included in the differential diagnosis of any inflammatory dermatoses. Several drugs can cause rash of similar morphology and the same drug can cause rash of different morphology. While some common and specific drug reaction patterns are recognized easily by the clinicians, many a times unusual and interesting patterns can be induced by drug(s), thus leading to erroneous diagnosis and mistreatment. This review aims to familiarize clinicians with some rare, yet interesting patterns of CADR.
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Management of stevens-johnson syndrome-toxic epidermal necrolysis: Looking beyond guidelines! p. 117
Rajesh Kumar, Anupam Das, Sudip Das
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions, which are mainly caused by drugs; and these are usually associated with high degree of morbidity and mortality. Recently, two detailed guidelines were published on the management of SJS/TEN, Indian guidelines and UK guidelines. Still, there is no consensus on the management of SJS/TEN. In this article, our aim is to conceptualize the management aspect of SJS/TEN considering Indian setup. Early discontinuation of all medicines, supportive measures (hydration, electrolytes, and care of denuded skin), corticosteroids and cyclosporine has been found to be useful. Oral provocation test is reserved for patients, who undergo complete remission and this is to be done after hospitalization, under strict vigilance. As there is no consensus, the treatment should be individualized on case to case basis.
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Controversies in the management of cutaneous adverse drug reactions p. 125
Yashpal Manchanda, Sudip Das, Aarti Sarda, Projna Biswas
Some cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) are severe life-threatening conditions due to multisystem involvements with a high morbidity and mortality rates ranging from 25 - 70% and require immediate medical care. But there are huge controversies regarding the management because large clinical trials are lacking. Most frequent discussion and division occur regarding the use of systemic corticosteroid as early intervention with corticosteroids controls inflammation. Corticosteroids are potent agents that target several intracellular processes to modify almost all components of inflammatory and immune responses but their impact on the long term disease course is not known. Controlled relapses of rash and hepatitis may occur as corticosteroids are tapered. A chronic HHV6 activation promoted by systemic steroids could explain these relapses. Second important issue is the use of antitubercular drugs (ATD) in case of CADR due to multidrug therapy of ATD. As both the tuberculosis and CADR are life threatening conditions and we can not spare treatment of tuberculosis for CADR, we should come to a conclusion which is not yet decided. In the same way the use of antileprotic MDT in CADR due to MDT raises a similar controversy. So, here we focus on those controversies and discuss the issues.
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Evaluation of adolescents diagnosed with acne vulgaris for quality of life and psychosocial challenges p. 131
Murat Eyuboglu, Incilay Kalay, Damla Eyüboglu
Background: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition which affects most adolescents. It has a major impact on quality of life and psychosocial well-being. Aims: The aims of the study were to examine the psychosocial effects of acne on adolescents and changes in quality of life, and to reveal any difference in the possible effect between genders. In addition, an investigation of the association between acne severity and quality of life as well as psychosocial stress was conducted. Materials and Methods: The present study included 164 adolescents with a mean age of 12–18 years and was diagnosed with acne vulgaris without any previous treatment. The control group consisted of 188 healthy volunteers. Acne severity was evaluated by the global acne grading system. All patients filled in a Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index, Pediatric Quality of Life Questionnaire (PedsQL), and a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: The scores of SDQ and PedsQL were significantly lower in the case group. There was no significant correlation found between the genders in the control group for acne severity and scale scores. No significant correlation was found between acne severity and psychosocial challenges. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that acne has a significant effect on quality of life for adolescents, and this has an impact on their psychosocial life. Another important finding of the present study is that worsening in quality of life is not affected by some factors such as duration, severity of acne and age.
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Lipid accumulation product index as visceral obesity indicator in psoriasis: A Case–control Study p. 136
Satyaki Ganguly, Lopamudra Ray, Sheela Kuruvila, Sunil Kumar Nanda, Kandasamy Ravichandran
Background: Psoriasis has well-known associations with individual components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and obesity. Traditional anthropometric measurements of obesity such as waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) do not differentiate between subcutaneous fat and visceral fat, the latter being associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) index is a measure of visceral fat and has been found to be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk. However, LAP index has not been well-studied in psoriasis patients. Aims and Objectives: Our objective was to find out if LAP index differs significantly between psoriasis patients and controls and whether LAP index shows a correlation with duration and severity of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was undertaken with 40 chronic plaque psoriasis patients and 42 controls. BMI and LAP index were calculated for all the patients and controls. Psoriasis area severity index (PASI) was calculated for all the psoriasis patients. Mann–Whitney U-test was done for comparing the age, BMI, WC, serum triglyceride, and LAP index between the cases and controls and to compare the LAP index between mild psoriasis and moderate-to-severe psoriasis groups. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation of LAP index with duration of psoriasis and with PASI. Logistic regression models were done to assess the risk factors in psoriasis. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed between the LAP index of controls (23.79 ± 13.02) and that of psoriasis patients (46.42 ± 27.2). LAP index was significantly higher in the moderate-to-severe psoriasis group as compared to the mild psoriasis group. LAP index was a significant risk factor associated with psoriasis (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03 – 1.11). Conclusion: Calculation of LAP index in psoriasis patients helps in identification of more individuals at high risk of cardiovascular morbidity than traditional anthropometric measurements of obesity.
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A study of onychomycosis at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Bihar p. 141
Anindita Sen, Deblina Bhunia, Pijush Kanti Datta, Atanu Ray, Parthajit Banerjee
Background: Onychomycosis (OM) is a major public health problem which is increasing worldwide. It is associated with high morbidity and causes physical, psychological, and occupational problems in patients. Aims: This study aims to study the pattern of etiological agents, clinical features, and severity assessment of OM in this part of India. Materials and Methods: Sixty eight clinically suspected patients with positive potassium hydroxide and fungal culture were studied. Results: Males were infected more often than females (1.61:1). The most common age group affected was 21–40 years. Finger nails were affected more frequently than toe nails. Distal and lateral subungual OM was the most common (48 cases, 70.59%) clinical pattern. For most of the patients (66.18%), nail involvement was severe. Discoloration was the most common (67 cases, 98.53%) change, followed by subungual hyperkeratosis (51 cases, 75%). Principal causative agents were dermatophytes (55 cases, 80.88%) with Trichophyton rubrum being the most common one (35 cases, 51.47%). In 9 (13.23%) cases, Candida albicans, in 6 (8.82%) Aspergillus niger and in 1 (1.47%) case Acremonium sp. (AC) have been isolated as the sole causative agent. In 2 (2.94%) cases, mixed infection with dermatophyte and Aspergillus and in 1 (1.47%) case dermatophyte and Candida were noted. Conclusion: Although dermatophytes were the most common causative agent of OM, nondermatophytic molds, and yeasts were also encountered. The genus and species identification helps in the proper diagnosis and management. Morphological changes in nail may help in presumptive diagnosis of OM.
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Conventional versus giant basal cell carcinoma, a review of 57 Cases: Histologic differences contributing to excessive growth p. 147
J Chase Purnell, Jerad M Gardner, J Ahmad Brown, Sara C Shalin
Background: Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) exceeding 5 cm in size. While these tumors impart significant morbidity due to local tissue destruction and have a higher rate of metastatic disease than their conventional (smaller) counterparts, reasons for their large size remain unclear. While theories relating to neglect or faster growth rate are often invoked; to date, there has not been a comprehensive evaluation of the histologic features of these large tumors that may contribute to their size. Methods: Histologic features of GBCCs (n = 29) were evaluated and compared to those of conventional BCC (n = 28). Available clinical demographic data were also reviewed. Results: GBCCs, in addition to overall larger size, more often were thicker, displayed ulceration, and showed a more infiltrative growth pattern than their conventional counterparts. These rare tumors also displayed an insignificant increased propensity for a brisk host immune response, and the infiltrate significantly more often included clusters of plasma cells. Conclusions: Most histologic features seen in GBCCs likely reflect their large size. Histologic features alone are unlikely to explain the size of these rare tumors. The possibility of an altered host immune response contributing to the growth of these tumors requires further investigation.
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Antimicrobial susceptibility of tinea capitis in children from Egypt p. 155
Reham William Doss, Abdel-Aziz El-Rifaie, Nagla Radi, Aya Yehia El-Sherif
Background: Dermatophytic fungi of genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are the most important fungal species causing tinea capitis. Choice of treatment for tinea capitis is determined by the species of fungus. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the most prevalent fungal species causing tinea capitis in children from Egypt and the most useful antifungal agent for treatment. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed clinically with tinea capitis were included in the study. Samples were collected and sent to the microbiology and immunology laboratory for sample processing and fungal identification by routine laboratory techniques. A study of antifungal susceptibility to chosen antifungal medications (fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, amphotericin, caspofungin, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin) was done by minimum inhibitory concentration technique. Results: Our analysis revealed that Microsporum canis is the most commonly isolated strain. Amphotericin was the most effective antifungal agent followed by terbinafine. The most sensitive strain to fluconazole and griseofulvin is Microsporum gypseum, while Microsporum audouinii was mostly responsive to terbinafine. Conclusion: Identification and evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility of the pathogenic species in a certain geographic region is important to achieve a good clinical response.
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Common contact allergens in patients with palmoplantar and scalp psoriasis and impact of their avoidance on dermatology life quality index: A hospital-based study p. 160
Farhan Rasool, Saniya Akhtar, Iffat Hassan, Sumaya Zeerak, Syed Mubashir, Gousia Sheikh
Background: Scalp psoriasis and psoriasis limited to palms and/or soles have been referred to as difficult to control psoriasis. Contact allergy has long been suspected to aggravate existing lesions and cause resistance to therapy in these psoriasis variants. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess common contact allergens in patients with palmoplantar and scalp psoriasis and the impact of their avoidance on dermatology life quality index (DLQI). Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients with palmoplantar and scalp psoriasis were patch tested with Indian Standard Series. The patch test results were read on day 2 and day 4. DLQI was calculated before patch testing and at 1 month and 3 month in patch test positive patients after instructing allergen avoidance. Results: Sixteen out of fifty-four patients (29.62%) showed positive patch test reactions. Metal antigens like nickel and cobalt were the most common sensitizers identified. Statistically significant improvement in DLQI was observed at 1 month and at 3 month of allergen avoidance. Conclusion: Patch testing is a useful test to determine the triggering or aggravating antigens in patients with palmoplantar and scalp psoriasis and subsequent allergen avoidance should be stressed on.
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Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of skin: Myoepithelial cells are a clue to its diagnosis p. 165
Radha Sistla, Tameem Afroz, Jithendran Narayanswamy
Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare adnexal neoplasm of eccrine gland. Fewer than 200 cases are reported in literature. Clinically, it can be mistaken as a benign lesion. The primary challenge in these lesions is to differentiate these rare primary lesions from more frequent mucinous secondary deposits. Morphologically, they are similar to metastatic deposits of mucinous carcinoma from other viscera such as breast, lung, or gastrointestinal tract. Use of ancillary techniques and a thorough metastatic work up are mandatory to differentiate these lesions from metastases. We report a case of primary mucinous carcinoma of nasojugal region in a 51-year-old female. It was diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology, and later, the lesion was excised and diagnosis confirmed on histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry.
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Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: A circumventable emergency p. 168
Sourav Choudhury, Anupam Das, Priyankar Misra, Udipta Ray, Sujata Sarangi
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is characterized by multiple hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and mucocutaneous pigmentation. Here we present, a case of multiple gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps in a 22-year-old male who had been operated for intestinal obstruction due to ileocolic intussusception. Resection of the affected segment was done with proximal ileostomy and distal mucous fistula formation. Clinicopathological diagnosis of PJS was made. Later, during ileostomy closure, it was found that the patient had a transverse colonic mass which was resected. Histological examination with immunohistochemistry confirmed it to be a Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma (MALToma). Colonic MALToma in the background of PJS is a unique case for which it has been reported.
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A tale of H syndrome with typical radiographic findings p. 172
Praneet Pradeep Awake, Lakshmi Chandravathi Penmetcha, Anil Fonseca, Prasad Prabhakar Jawalkar
H syndrome is a recently described autosomal recessive genodermatosis with cutaneous phenotypes of varying severity and multi-system involvement. Patients suffering from this disorder can be easily mistaken for sclerodermoid conditions. The radiological findings of H syndrome are typical but have been described only anecdotally. We present a case of a 29 year old male patient of H syndrome with typical radiological features.
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Vitamin D-Dependent rickets Type II with alopecia: A rare case report p. 176
Divya Vupperla, Snehal Balvant Lunge, Praveen Elaprolu
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II is a rare hereditary disorder. It occurs due to mutations in the gene chr. 12q12-q14, which codes for vitamin D receptor. End-organ resistance to 1,25-(OH)2vitamin D3 and alopecia in severe cases are the characteristic features. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy with loss of hair over the scalp and body – first observed after 1 month of birth. The boy also developed difficulty in walking at the age of 2 year. On analysis, reduced serum calcium level (7.5 mg/dL) and elevated alkaline phosphatase level (625 IU/L) were reported. Initially, the treatment included intramuscularly administered single dose of 600,000 IU vitamin D, followed by 400 IU of vitamin D along with 1 g of supplemental calcium every day. Periodic follow-up was conducted for 2 months. Improvement was observed in the biochemical parameters and X-rays of the distal radial and ulnar metaphyses, although no improvement was observed in alopecia.
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Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus in a blaschkoid pattern over face p. 180
Manju Meena, Manisha Balai, Sharad Mehta, Garima Bharti
Linear lesions following the lines of Blaschko of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus is a highly unusual variant of cutaneous lupus, particularly in adult. The lesions are restricted to one anatomical site with facial predilection in most of the reported cases. We herein, report a case of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus due to rarity of presentation and later age of onset.
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Cutaneous metastasis leading to the diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate: A rare case report and review of literature p. 182
Pritam Sureshchandra Kataria, Pradip Piraji Kendre, Apurva Ashok Patel, Sameer Dalsaniya
Prostate adenocarcinoma is a common urologic malignant neoplasm in man. Distant cutaneous metastases (CMs) of prostate carcinoma are extremely rare with a reported incidence of 0.36% and usually they occur late. Clinically, cutaneous metastasis of prostate carcinoma can mimic other skin conditions such as cellulitis, sebaceous cyst, zosteriform lesions, telangectasias, and more, resulting in a poor recognition. Few cases of true cutaneous metastatic prostate carcinoma exist in the literature. We present a case, where the first sign of carcinoma of the prostate was CM over the anterior abdominal wall. Radiological and histopathological confirmation pointed to a diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate. The patient was treated with orchidectomy and was started on bicalutamide. After 1 month of bicalutamide therapy there was subjective decrease in the size of the metastasis. A high index of suspicion is required while evaluating the different differential diagnoses of this entity particularly in elderly patients.
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Perforating calcific elastosis: Revisiting a rare entity p. 186
Niharika Ranjan Lal, Debabrata Bandyopadhyay, Rachna Verma, Anjani Kumar Shukla
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Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis p. 188
Astuty Apurwa, Sharmila Patil, Parag Chaudhari, Nitin J Nadkarni
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Multiple eruptive clear cell acanthoma p. 190
Sha Zhou, Jianjun Qiao, Juan Bai, Yinhua Wu, Xiaoling Jiang, Yunlei Pan, Lina Xu, Hong Fang
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