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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-August 2017
Volume 62 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 329-441

Online since Monday, July 10, 2017

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EDITORIAL  

Indian Journal of Dermatology (IJD®) gets its first impact factor of 1.069 p. 329
Koushik Lahiri
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_314_17  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Mycetoma: An update Highly accessed article p. 332
Vineet Relhan, Khushbu Mahajan, Pooja Agarwal, Vijay Kumar Garg
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_476_16  
Mycetoma is a localized chronic, suppurative, and deforming granulomatous infection seen in tropical and subtropical areas. It is a disorder of subcutaneous tissue, skin and bones, mainly of feet, characterized by a triad of localized swelling, underlying sinus tracts, and production of grains or granules. Etiological classification divides it into eumycetoma caused by fungus, and actinomycetoma caused by bacteria. Since the treatment of these two etiologies is entirely different, a definite diagnosis after histopathological and microbiological examination is mandatory, though difficult. Serological test exists but is not so reliable; however, molecular techniques to identify relevant antigens have shown promise. The disease is notoriously difficult to treat. Eumycetoma may be unresponsive to standard antifungal therapy. Actinomycetoma responds to antibiotic therapy, but prolonged treatment is necessary.This review focuses on the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of mycetoma.
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Synchronizing pharmacotherapy in acne with review of clinical care p. 341
Sarvajnamurthy Aradhya Sacchidanand, Koushik Lahiri, Kiran Godse, Narendra Gajanan Patwardhan, Anil Ganjoo, Rajendra Kharkar, Varsha Narayanan, Dhammraj Borade, Lyndon D'souza
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_41_17  
Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that involves the pathogenesis of four major factors, such as androgen-induced increased sebum secretion, altered keratinization, colonization of Propionibacterium acnes, and inflammation. Several acne mono-treatment and combination treatment regimens are available and prescribed in the Indian market, ranging from retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), anti-infectives, and other miscellaneous agents. Although standard guidelines and recommendations overview the management of mild, moderate, and severe acne, relevance and positioning of each category of pharmacotherapy available in Indian market are still unexplained. The present article discusses the available topical and oral acne therapies and the challenges associated with the overall management of acne in India and suggestions and recommendations by the Indian dermatologists. The experts opined that among topical therapies, the combination therapies are preferred over monotherapy due to associated lower efficacy, poor tolerability, safety issues, adverse effects, and emerging bacterial resistance. Retinoids are preferred in comedonal acne and as maintenance therapy. In case of poor response, combination therapies BPO-retinoid or retinoid-antibacterials in papulopustular acne and retinoid-BPO or BPO-antibacterials in pustular-nodular acne are recommended. Oral agents are generally recommended for severe acne. Low-dose retinoids are economical and have better patient acceptance. Antibiotics should be prescribed till the inflammation is clinically visible. Antiandrogen therapy should be given to women with high androgen levels and are added to regimen to regularize the menstrual cycle. In late-onset hyperandrogenism, oral corticosteroids should be used. The experts recommended that an early initiation of therapy is directly proportional to effective therapeutic outcomes and prevent complications.
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IJDŽ MODULE ON BIOSTATISTICS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR THE DERMATOLOGIST - MODULE EDITOR: SAUMYA PANDA Top

Biostatistics series module 10: Brief overview of multivariate methods p. 358
Avijit Hazra, Nithya Gogtay
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_296_17  
Multivariate analysis refers to statistical techniques that simultaneously look at three or more variables in relation to the subjects under investigation with the aim of identifying or clarifying the relationships between them. These techniques have been broadly classified as dependence techniques, which explore the relationship between one or more dependent variables and their independent predictors, and interdependence techniques, that make no such distinction but treat all variables equally in a search for underlying relationships. Multiple linear regression models a situation where a single numerical dependent variable is to be predicted from multiple numerical independent variables. Logistic regression is used when the outcome variable is dichotomous in nature. The log-linear technique models count type of data and can be used to analyze cross-tabulations where more than two variables are included. Analysis of covariance is an extension of analysis of variance (ANOVA), in which an additional independent variable of interest, the covariate, is brought into the analysis. It tries to examine whether a difference persists after “controlling” for the effect of the covariate that can impact the numerical dependent variable of interest. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a multivariate extension of ANOVA used when multiple numerical dependent variables have to be incorporated in the analysis. Interdependence techniques are more commonly applied to psychometrics, social sciences and market research. Exploratory factor analysis and principal component analysis are related techniques that seek to extract from a larger number of metric variables, a smaller number of composite factors or components, which are linearly related to the original variables. Cluster analysis aims to identify, in a large number of cases, relatively homogeneous groups called clusters, without prior information about the groups. The calculation intensive nature of multivariate analysis has so far precluded most researchers from using these techniques routinely. The situation is now changing with wider availability, and increasing sophistication of statistical software and researchers should no longer shy away from exploring the applications of multivariate methods to real-life data sets.
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Methodology series module 10: Qualitative health research p. 367
Maninder Singh Setia
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_290_17  
Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups). Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.
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SYMPOSIUM EDITORIAL Top

Ethical issues pertinent to current clinical research environment in India p. 371
Nilay Kanti Das
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_270_17  
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IJD SYMPOSIUM Top

Evolution of ethics in clinical research and ethics committee p. 373
Nilay Kanti Das, Amrita Sil
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_271_17  
Ethics are the moral values of human behavior and the principles which govern these values. The situation becomes challenging for a doctor when he assumes the role of researcher. The doctor-researcher has to serve both the roles and at times the zeal of an investigator has the potential to cloud the morality of the physician inside. It is very important to realize that exploiting the faith of patients is an offence that tantamount to a crime. Medical science is one discipline where the advancement of knowledge is hugely guided by research and mankind has benefitted from many experiments. However benefit and risk are the two faces of the same coin. Various unethical human experiments made us realize that the whims of researchers need to be reined and led to the evolution of the first guidelines for researcher, the Nuremberg code. Thereafter the Good Clinical Practice guidelines serve as the guiding doctrine of clinical research. The principles of ethics rest on the four pillars of autonomy, beneficence, justice, non-maleficence and recently two more pillars are added which includes, confidentiality and honesty. Ethics committees serve as a guardian of these principles. The multidisciplinary Ethics Committee ensures a competent review of the ethical aspects of the project proposal submitted and does it free from any bias or external influence. Ethical review of clinical trial applications follows a decentralized process in India, and requires Ethics Committee approval for each trial site. All Ethics committees have to be registered with Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) without which they cannot approve any clinical trial protocol and has come into effect from 25th February 2013.
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Informed consent process: Foundation of the researcher–participant bond p. 380
Amrita Sil, Nilay Kanti Das
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_272_17  
Consenting to participate in a clinical research study after being properly and correctly informed upholds the basic ethical principle of “autonomy” in human research. The informed consent is a process by which the physician sensitizes the patient about the nature, procedures, risks benefits, treatment schedules, etc of the study in a language that is non-technical and understandable by the study participant. Informed consent document (ICD) has got two parts: the 'Subject Information Sheet' and the 'Informed Consent Form' (ICF); and they have to be approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) before administration. Consent should be obtained without any coercion. In case of a situation where a participant is not able to give informed consent (e.g. unconscious, minor or those suffering from severe mental illness or disability) or is illiterate, it has be obtained from a legally acceptable representative (LAR). If the participant or LAR is unable to read/write, then an impartial witness should be present during the entire informed consent process and must append his/her signatures to the consent form. For children < 7 years, verbal consent is essential and for mature minors (age group 7 to 18 years) informed assent should be obtained.
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Ethics of safety reporting of a clinical trial p. 387
Amrita Sil, Nilay Kanti Das
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_273_17  
Clinical trial related injury and serious adverse events (SAE) are a major area of concern. In all such scenarios the investigator is responsible for medical care of the trial participant and also ethically bound to report the event to all the stakeholders of the clinical trial. The trial sponsor is responsible for ongoing safety evaluation of the investigational product, reporting and compensating the participant in case of any SAE. The Ethics Committee and regulatory body of the country are to uphold the ethical principles of beneficence, justice, non-maleficence in such cases. Any unwanted and noxious effect of a drug when used in recommended doses is an adverse drug reaction (ADR) whereas if causal association is not yet established it is termed adverse event (AE). An AE or ADR that is associated with death, in-patient hospitalization, prolongation of hospitalization, persistent or significant disability or incapacity, a congenital anomaly, or is otherwise life threatening is termed as an SAE. The principal investigator reports the event to the licensing authority (DCGI), sponsor and Chairperson of the Ethics Committee (EC) within 24 hours of occurrence of the SAE. This report is furthered by a detailed report by both the investigator and the EC and given to the DCGI who then gives a final decision on the amount of compensation to be given by the sponsor or the sponsor's representative to the grieving party.
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CURRENT PERSPECTIVE Top

Propionibacterium acnes and the Th1/Th17 Axis, implications in acne pathogenesis and treatment p. 392
Kabir Sardana, Gunjan Verma
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_483_16  
Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen conditions and the immunological link is a topic of active research. Recently, the Th17 pathway has been found to play a pivotal role in acne. The adaptive immune response toward Propionibacterium acnes leads to activation of Th17 axis. Consequently, the Th17 cytokines (IL-17, IL-1 β, IL-6, and tumor growth factor, in turn, activate the various pathogenic steps in acne. Drugs such as Vitamin D3 and isotretinoin which target the Th17 pathway may offer an additional pathway for their therapeutic response.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Efficacy and safety of terbinafine 500 mg once daily in patients with dermatophytosis Highly accessed article p. 395
P Ravindra Babu, A J S Pravin, Gaurav Deshmukh, Dhiraj Dhoot, Aniket Samant, Bhavesh Kotak
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_191_17  
Introduction: Dermatophytosis are the most common fungal infections globally. Terbinafine is considered to have good potency against dermatophytes, but resistance to terbinafine is on the rise. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of terbinafine 500 mg given once daily in treatment of patients with superficial dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective questionnaire-based survey. Each doctor was given survey questionnaire booklet containing survey forms. Clinical response was graded according to the improvement in the affected lesion. Mycological cure was defined as negative microscopy under potassium hydroxide examination and a negative culture in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the duration of therapy, Group A – terbinafine 500 mg for 2 weeks, Group B – terbinafine 500 mg for 4 weeks, and Group C – terbinafine 500 mg for 6 weeks. Results: Total 50 doctors completed the survey involving 440 patients. In Group A, out of 194 patients, 87% (n = 169) patients showed very good response. In Group B, out of 211 patients, 92% (n = 194) of the patients showed very good response with >75% improvement in their lesion. In Group C, out of 35 patients, 80% (n = 30) patients showed very good response. Adverse drug reactions of mild to moderate intensity related to terbinafine were seen in 57 patients. Conclusion: Our survey indicates that terbinafine in a dose of 500 mg given once daily was efficacious and safe in the treatment of patients with dermatophytosis.
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Histopathological analysis of skin adnexal tumors: A three year study of 110 cases at a tertiary care center p. 400
Kanwalpreet Kaur, Karuna Gupta, Deepika Hemrajani, Ajay Yadav, Kalpana Mangal
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_380_16  
Background: Skin adnexal tumors (SAT) encompass wide spectrum of benign and malignant tumors that differentiate toward one or more adnexal structures found in normal skin. Overall incidence of SATs is low yet they can be challenging to diagnose. Aims: The aim of this study is to study the spectrum and microscopic features of SATs. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted over a period of 3 years. Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological analysis. Results: Out of the total 34,400 biopsies, 110 cases were diagnosed as SATs comprising 39.09% of tumors with follicular differentiation followed by tumors showing sweat gland differentiation (37.27%), and sebaceous differentiation (23.63%). The age ranged from 5 years to 85 years and male:female ratio was 1.03:1. Most of the tumors were benign (82.73%) while only 17.27% were malignant. Pilomatricoma (28.2%) was the most common benign tumor while sebaceous carcinoma (11.8%) was the most common malignant tumor. Conclusion: Architectural features are of great importance in differentiating benign tumors from malignant.
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Vitamin D level in alopecia areata Highly accessed article p. 407
Yasmeen Jabeen Bhat, Insha Latif, Rauf Malik, Iffat Hassan, Gousia Sheikh, Kouser Sideeq Lone, Sabiya Majeed, Peerzada Sajad
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_677_16  
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an immune-mediated disease in which autoantigens play an important part in activating T-lymphocytes. Vitamin D has been associated with various autoimmune diseases, and Vitamin D receptors are strongly expressed in hair follicles and their expression in keratinocytes is necessary for the maintenance of the normal hair cycle. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the association between Vitamin D level and AA. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study in which 50 patients with clinically and trichoscopically diagnosed AA cases, and 35 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied in summer months. Blood samples were taken from both cases as well as controls and samples were immediately processed by centrifugation (4000 rpm) at room temperature. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was analyzed by chemiluminescence method. A deficiency in Vitamin D was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Results: The mean body mass index in cases was 20.96 ± 1.91, whereas in controls, it was 21.37 ± 1.70 (P = 0.31). The mean serum 25(OH)D levels of AA patients was 16.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml, whereas in control group, the mean level was 40.5 ± 5.7, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between severity of alopecia tool score and Vitamin D level (P < 0.001; r = −0.730) and also between the number of patches and Vitamin D level (P < 0.001, r = −0.670). Conclusion: In our study, we found that the levels of 25(OH)D were low in AA patients when compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum Vitamin D and severity of AA. Thus, the study suggests the role of Vitamin D in pathogenesis of AA and hence a possible role of Vitamin D supplementation in treatment of same. Limitations: Our study was limited by the lesser number of patients and lack of therapeutic trial of Vitamin D for these patients.
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Mucocutaneous manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-sectional study from Eastern India p. 411
Sudip Kumar Ghosh, Debabrata Bandyopadhyay, Surajit Kumar Biswas, Ivoreen Darung
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_260_17  
Background: Cutaneous manifestations are fairly common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and they can help in early diagnosis, prompt treatment, and hence reduced morbidity from the disease. Aims: The objective of the present study was to find out the different patterns of dermatoses in a group of patients with RA from Eastern India. Methodology: Consecutive patients fulfilling the American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of RA and who had different dermatoses were included in this cross-sectional study done over a period of 8 years in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India. Thorough clinical examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed as needed. Data were recorded in a predesigned schedule, and appropriate statistical analysis was done. Results: We studied 111 evaluable patients with an age range of 19–71 years and a female to male ratio of 7:1. The mean disease duration of RA was 6.5 years. Cutaneous infections as a group was the most common mucocutaneous manifestation (34.2%) followed by xerosis including ichthyotic skin changes (27%), pigmented purpuric dermatoses (14.4%), leg ulcer (9.9%), periungual telangiectasia (9.9%), rheumatoid nodules (RNs) (8.1%), purpura and ecchymoses (7.2%), small vessel vasculitis in (7.2%), corn and callosities (6.3%), palmar erythema (4.5%), and neutrophilic dermatosis (4.5%). Raynaud's phenomenon was found in 3.6% patients and panniculitis in (3.6%) patients. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides antibody were positive in 74.8% and 88.3% patients, respectively. No statistically significant difference of incidence of leg ulcer, small vessel vasculitis, RN, or Raynaud's phenomenon could be noted between RF positive and negative groups. Limitations: Being an institution-based study, the study findings may not reflect the true situation in the community which remained a limitation of this study. Conclusion: While some of the features of this study were analogous to Western data, other features showed discordance which may be due to ethnic variations among the patients with RA.
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RESIDENTS PAGE Top

Itolizumab in psoriasis p. 418
Ankita Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_467_16  
A number of biologics is being used for the treatment of psoriasis. Itolizumab is one such agent which has been approved in India. It is an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody that acts by binding to scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) distal domain 1 of CD6. Itolizumab has been found to be safe, with infusion reactions as the most common adverse effect. However, its advantages and disadvantages over other biologicals and immunosuppressants need to be established. Also, its utility in treating other immune-mediated disorders is being explored.
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CASE REPORT Top

Keratin 17 mutations in four families from India with pachyonychia congenita p. 422
Manoj Agarwala, Pankaj Salphale, Dincy Peter, Neil J Wilson, Susanne Pulimood, Mary E Schwartz, Frances J D Smith
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_321_16  
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic skin disorder due to a mutation in any one of the five keratin genes, KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT16, or KRT17. The main features are palmoplantar keratoderma, plantar pain, and nail dystrophy. Cysts of various types, follicular hyperkeratosis, oral leukokeratosis, hyperhidrosis, and natal teeth may also be present. Four unrelated Indian families presented with a clinical diagnosis of PC. This was confirmed by genetic testing; mutations in KRT17 were identified in all affected individuals.
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CORRESPONDENCES Top

Methodological issues with sampling strategy p. 427
Partha Haldar
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_241_17  
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Author's reply p. 427
Suzan Demir Pektas
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_305_17  
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Myeloma-associated systemic amyloidosis with an extensive cutaneous involvement p. 428
Parul Aggarwal, Kamal Aggarwal, Sarabjit Kaur, Vijay Kumar Jain
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_358_16  
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Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis with unusual presentation over the nipple p. 429
Shilpa Bairwa, Mahak Sharma, Ashok Sangwaiya, Sapna Singla, Karuna Gupta, Ajay Yadav
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_384_16  
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Leishmanial abscess p. 431
Sandeep Arora, Satish Mendonca, Ajay Malik, V Ramesh, Renu Khandpal
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_533_16  
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Confusing concepts in study design p. 433
Anupam Das, Aparajita Ghosh
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_251_17  
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Pyodermatitis-pyostomatitis vegetans p. 434
Surajit Nayak, Sibasish Patro
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_59_16  
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QUIZ Top

Multiple noduloulcerative lesions over extremities: Can cytology be diagnostic? p. 437
Krishnendu Mondal, Rupali Mandal
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_460_16  
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E-IJDŽ - CASE SERIES Top

Autoimmune bullous disease in childhood p. 440
Andac Salman, Burak Tekin, Deniz Yucelten
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_366_16  
Background: Autoimmune bullous disorders (AIBDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases which are rarely seen in children. Studies concerning the immunobullous diseases in pediatric patients are scarce. Aims and Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of AIBDs in children. Materials and Methods: The electronic records of the patients in our AIBDs outpatient clinic were retrospectively reviewed. All cases diagnosed before the age of 16 years were included in the analysis of clinical features, treatment outcomes, and follow-up data. Results: Of the 196 patients with immunobullous diseases, 9 (4.6%) were diagnosed before the age of 16 years. Mean age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 7.72 ± 5.66 years. Among nine patients, linear immunoglobulin A disease (LAD), pemphigus vulgaris (PV), and bullous pemphigoid (BP) were seen in 5, 2, and 2 children, respectively. All patients were treated with at least two systemic agents (including methylprednisolone, dapsone, methotrexate, salazopyrine, intravenous Ig [IVIg], and rituximab) leading to clinical remission in all of them after a mean period of 31.77 ± 27.99 months. Conclusion: In line with earlier studies, LAD was the most common immunobullous disease and in general, associated with a favorable response to dapsone. This study was noteworthy in that the patients with PV and BP demonstrated a relatively more recalcitrant course, requiring rituximab and IVIg for remission, respectively. Overall, patients had a good prognosis.
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Cortisol homeostasis in the epidermis is influenced by topical corticosteroids in patients with atopic dermatitis Highly accessed article p. 440
Mototsugu Fukaya
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_702_16  
Background: The skin produces cortisol by itself and regulates its own proliferation and differentiation. There is a possibility that topical corticosteroids (TCSs) influence the cortisol homeostasis in the skin. Aims and Objectives: The author described the density and distribution of cortisol and its parties in the epidermis after application of topical steroids immunohistologically. Materials and Methods: The forearm skin was biopsied before and after 2 weeks' application of clobetasol propionate 0.05% two times a day in one healthy volunteer. The biopsied skin was stained immunohistologically by ant-MLN64, StAR, CPY11A1, cortisol, HSD11B1, HSD11B2, glucocorticoid receptor alpha, glucocorticoid receptor beta (GRB), and mineralocorticoid receptor (MCR) antibodies. The skin biopsy was performed similarly in 19 adult patients with atopic dermatitis who had used TCS for a considerable period. They were 4 TCS present users (TCS+), 12 TCS nonusers with skin manifestation on the biopsied site (TCS-E+) and 3 TCS nonusers without skin manifestation on the biopsied site (TCS-E−). Results: The staining density increased during TCS application in MLN64, cortisol and HSD11B2 in a healthy volunteer. The staining density was stronger in HSD11B2 of the basal layer and MCR of the spinous layer in the TCS-E+ patients than in the TCS+ and TCS-E− patients. The staining density was weaker in MLN64 of the basal and granular layers, HSD11B1 of the basal layer and GRB of the whole layer in the TCS-E+ patients than in the TCS+ and TCS-E− patients. Conclusion: The hypertrophy of the epidermis and insufficient keratinization recognized in the TCS-E+ patients might be caused by the decreased cortisol synthesis regulated by MLN64 and the increased cortisol inactivation by HSD11B2. Decreased GRB and increased MCR might enhance the reactivity of cortisol in the keratinocytes.
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E–IJDŽ - CASE REPORTS Top

Severely crusted cheilitis as an initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus p. 440
Wai Man Mandy Chan, Shiu Ming Pang, See Ket Ng
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_559_16  
Lupus erythematosus (LE) is an autoimmune disease which may initially present solely with lip lesions. Due to a wide spectrum of presentation, these features may initially be misdiagnosed as other oral diseases such as lichen planus, erythema multiforme (EM), and actinic cheilitis, leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We discuss a case of severely crusted cheilitis which was initially diagnosed as EM, with subsequent development of subacute cutaneous LE, and progression to systemic LE. We will discuss the clinical and histological features of lupus cheilitis.
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Dermatoscopy in diagnosis of cutaneous myiasis arising in pemphigus vulgaris lesions p. 440
Keshavamurthy Vinay, Sanjeev Handa, Sumeeta Khurana, Sonu Agrawal, Dipankar De
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_354_16  
Myiasis, infestation of live human and vertebrate animals by larvae, can complicate ulcers and open wounds. Although myiasis occurs in neglected erosions of pemphigus, such a complication is not documented in the literature. Herein, we report a case of myiasis complicating pemphigus vulgaris and describe its dermatoscopic features.
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Superimposed segmental manifestation of juvenile amyopathic dermatomyositis in a 9-year-old boy p. 440
Isil Bulur, Hilal Kaya Erdogan, Zeynep Nurhan Saracoglu, Rudolf Happle, Funda Canaz
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_335_16  
Dermatomyositis is a well-known autoimmune disorder. On the other hand, juvenile amyopathic dermatomyositis (JADM) occurs rather rarely. Here, we report an unusual case in a 9-year-old Turkish boy showing a unilateral linear inflammatory skin lesion that was followed, after 16 months, by the appearance of bilateral disseminated features JADM.
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Disappearance of all nevi as initial sign of metastatic melanoma p. 441
Antonio Martinez-Lopez, Gonzalo Blasco-Morente, Israel Perez-Lopez, Salvador Arias-Santiago
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_260_16  
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Culture-bounded skin lesion - A case due to Chinese Gua Sha p. 441
Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_352_16  
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Refractory psoriasis vulgaris with itching successfully treated with the anti-interleukin-17A antibody secukinumab: A case of secondary failure of other biologic agents p. 441
Yuko Kurosaki, Kenji Takamori, Yasushi Suga
DOI:10.4103/ijd.IJD_97_17  
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