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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 65-67
NPY gene polymorphism in vitiligo: A case–control study in Egyptian patients


1 Department of Dermatology, Andrology and STDs, Menoufiya Faculty of Medicine, Shibeen El Koom, Egypt
2 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Menoufiya Faculty of Medicine, Shibeen El Koom, Egypt
3 Department of Molecular Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, El Sadat, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt

Date of Web Publication13-Jan-2020

Correspondence Address:
Ola Bakry
Department of Dermatology, Andrology and STDs, Menoufiya Faculty of Medicine, Shibeen El Koom
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijd.IJD_104_18

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How to cite this article:
Bakry O, Mariee A, Badr I, Tayel N, El Gendy S. NPY gene polymorphism in vitiligo: A case–control study in Egyptian patients. Indian J Dermatol 2020;65:65-7

How to cite this URL:
Bakry O, Mariee A, Badr I, Tayel N, El Gendy S. NPY gene polymorphism in vitiligo: A case–control study in Egyptian patients. Indian J Dermatol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 22];65:65-7. Available from: http://www.e-ijd.org/text.asp?2020/65/1/65/275752




Sir,

Vitiligo is a depigmentary dermatosis in which destruction or loss of function of epidermal melanocytes occurs.[1]

In Egypt, reported prevalence is 1.22% in overall population.[2]

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is produced either by sympathetic postganglionic nerve fibers or by activated macrophages. It stimulates melanocyte dendricity and regulates cell substrate adhesion, cell motility, and configuration.[3] It regulates catecholamine release[4] which was claimed to participate in the development of vitiligo.[5] The NPY gene contains four exons and is located on chromosome 7p15.1.[6]

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms are genetic changes of one nucleotide and these changes could have functional implications.[7]

The present study aimed to detect the association of NPY gene 399T/C polymorphism and vitiligo to explore if it increased disease risk or influenced clinical presentation in Egyptian patients.

Forty patients with vitiligo were selected and 40 healthy, age and gender-matched unrelated participants were enrolled as a control group. Control participants had no past or family history of vitiligo. A written consent form approved by local ethical research committee was obtained from every participant before study initiation.

Assessment of disease activity was done according to vitiligo disease activity score.[8] Assessment of disease severity was done by vitiligo area severity index score.[9]

Patients with dermatological diseases other than vitiligo, with systemic, neurological, and/or autoimmune diseases or malignancy were excluded from the study.

Detection of NPY gene polymorphism was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction.

Clinical data of selected cases are summarized in [Table 1].
Table 1: General characteristics of vitiligo patients

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CC genotype and C allele were significantly associated with cases compared with controls. They increased vitiligo risk by 3.75 and 7 folds, respectively [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b. This was in agreement with Laddha et al.[1]
Figure 1: (a) Prevalence of neuropeptide Y genotypes in studied cases and controls. (b) Prevalence of neuropeptide Y alleles in studied cases and controls. (c) Relationship between neuropeptide Y genotypes and sites affected by vitiligo

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T/C genotype was also significantly associated with cases. It increased vitiligo risk by 4.6 folds [Figure 1]a. This conflicted with Laddha et al.[1]

Therefore, NPY gene polymorphism can be considered as a risk factor for vitiligo in Egyptian population.

The NPY promoter region –399T/C polymorphism (T/C) is associated with the initiation of transcription and can change NPY transcription activity.[10] When the –399 locus contains the C nucleotide, plasma NPY levels are higher,[11] leading to increased catecholamine production.

Catecholamines contribute to melanocyte damage by free radical release or immune-mediated cytotoxicity. They stimulate the release of heat shock proteins by melanocytes and activate antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and Langerhans cells.[4]

In the current work, a significant association was found between T/C genotype and vitiligo lesions on extremities [Figure 1]c. This was not reported before and needs further investigation to be clarified.

The present work revealed lack of association between genotypes and disease activity. This was against the previous report of Laddha et al.[1] This controversy can be explained by different clinical criteria and ethnic backgrounds of selected populations.

Therefore, based on the current finding, NPY antagonists may be used in future for vitiligo treatment. However, as vitiligo is a complex disease with multiple genes and immunological and environmental factors, single genetic study is not enough and studying other genes, gene–gene, and gene–environment interactions are needed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Laddha NC, Dwivedi M, Mansuri MS, Gani AR, Ansarullah M, Ramachandran AV, et al. Vitiligo: Interplay between oxidative stress and immune system. Exp Dermatol 2013;22:245-50.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Abdel-Hafez K, Abdel-Aty MA, Hofny ER. Prevalence of skin diseases in rural areas of Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt. Int J Dermatol 2003;42:887-92.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Rozengurt E. Convergent signalling in the action of integrins, neuropeptides, growth factors and oncogenes. Cancer Surv 1995;24:81-96.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Yu R, Huang Y, Zhang X, Zhou Y. Potential role of neurogenic inflammatory factors in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. J Cutan Med Surg 2012;16:230-44.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Liu PY, Bondesson L, Löntz W, Johansson O. The occurrence of cutaneous nerve endings and neuropeptides in vitiligo vulgaris: A case-control study. Arch Dermatol Res 1996;288:670-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Morrone A, Picardo M, de Luca C, Terminali O, Passi S, Ippolito F, et al. Catecholamines and vitiligo. Pigment Cell Res 1992;5:65-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Crescenti A, Solà R, Valls RM, Anguera A, Arola L. Polymorphisms in LEP and NPY genes modify the response to soluble fibre Plantago ovata husk intake on cardiovascular risk biomarkers. Genes Nutr 2013;8:127-36.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Laddha NC, Dwivedi M, Mansuri MS, Singh M, Patel HH, Agarwal N, et al. Association of neuropeptide Y (NPY), interleukin-1B (IL1B) genetic variants and correlation of IL1B transcript levels with vitiligo susceptibility. PLoS One 2014;9:e107020.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Buckland PR, Hoogendoorn B, Guy CA, Coleman SL, Smith SK, Buxbaum JD, et al. A high proportion of polymorphisms in the promoters of brain expressed genes influences transcriptional activity. Biochim Biophys Acta 2004;1690:238-49.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Itokawa M, Arai M, Kato S, Ogata Y, Furukawa A, Haga S, et al. Association between a novel polymorphism in the promoter region of the neuropeptide Y gene and schizophrenia in humans. Neurosci Lett 2003;347:202-4.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Westerhof W, d'Ischia M. Vitiligo puzzle: The pieces fall in place. Pigment Cell Res 2007;20:345-59.  Back to cited text no. 11
    


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