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IJD® MODULE ON BIOSTATISTICS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR THE DERMATOLOGIST - MODULE EDITOR: SAUMYA PANDA
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 258-261
Methodology series module 9: Designing questionnaires and clinical record forms – Part II


Epidemiologist, MGM Institute of Health Sciences, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication12-May-2017

Correspondence Address:
Maninder Singh Setia
Epidemiologist, MGM Institute of Health Sciences, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijd.IJD_200_17

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   Abstract 

This article is a continuation of the previous module on designing questionnaires and clinical record form in which we have discussed some basic points about designing the questionnaire and clinical record forms. In this section, we will discuss the reliability and validity of questionnaires. The different types of validity are face validity, content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity. The different types of reliability are test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and intra-rater reliability. Some of these parameters are assessed by subject area experts. However, statistical tests should be used for evaluation of other parameters. Once the questionnaire has been designed, the researcher should pilot test the questionnaire. The items in the questionnaire should be changed based on the feedback from the pilot study participants and the researcher's experience. After the basic structure of the questionnaire has been finalized, the researcher should assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire or the scale. If an existing standard questionnaire is translated in the local language, the researcher should assess the reliability and validity of the translated questionnaire, and these values should be presented in the manuscript. The decision to use a self- or interviewer-administered, paper- or computer-based questionnaire depends on the nature of the questions, literacy levels of the target population, and resources.


Keywords: Questionnaires, reliability, validity


How to cite this article:
Setia MS. Methodology series module 9: Designing questionnaires and clinical record forms – Part II. Indian J Dermatol 2017;62:258-61

How to cite this URL:
Setia MS. Methodology series module 9: Designing questionnaires and clinical record forms – Part II. Indian J Dermatol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Feb 28];62:258-61. Available from: http://www.e-ijd.org/text.asp?2017/62/3/258/206179



   Introduction Top


This article is a continuation of the previous module on designing questionnaires and clinical record forms. In the previous module, we discussed some basic points in designing the questionnaire and clinical record forms. In this section, we will discuss the reliability and validity of questionnaires.


   Examples Top


Carlsson and coworkers (2017)

The authors assessed the inter- and intra-observer reliability of Hand Eczema Extent Score (HEES). Six dermatologists assessed the hand eczema in 18 patients twice (before and after lunch). The patients were hidden by a screen, and the dermatologists could only visualize the hands. Furthermore, the patients were also instructed not to wear any items that could help in identification on their hands (such as rings, bracelets, nail paints). Interestingly, the presence of tattoos was an exclusion criterion. They reported that the intra-observer reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.88–0.94). Their ICC for intra-observer reliability for the two observations by patients was 0.95. Thus, they concluded HEES is reliable to grade the extent of eczema.

Sarkar and colleagues (2016)

The authors developed a questionnaire for assessing quality of life in melasma patients in Hindi. They translated the original Melasma Quality Of Life Questionnaire (MELASQOL) in Hindi and evaluated the questionnaire properties. The steps in translations were (1) translation; (2) review by the expert committee; (3) back translation; (4) rereview by the committee; (5) pretesting; and (6) final revision. They reported the Cronbach's alpha of Hindi-MELASQOL was 0.861; thus, they concluded that reliability was satisfactory. The authors also compared the correlation between Melasma Area Severity Index (MASI) and Hindi-MELASQOL. They reported that the Spearman's correlation between these was 0.809 (P < 0.05); thus, they concluded that there was a significant positive correlation between MASI score and Hindi-MELASQOL.

The authors have also provided all the items in the manuscript. This questionnaire is useful for assessing QOL in Indian patients.

We urge the readers to read these manuscripts. They discuss practical methods for assessing the reliability and validity of questionnaires.


   Validity Top


What is validity?

A test or questionnaire should measure what it is supposed to measure – this represents the validity of the test. Of all the definitions and explanations, I found the one provided by Aday to be complete and self-explanatory. Aday describes the validity of a questionnaire as “the degree to which there are systematic differences between the information obtained in response to the questions relative to: full meaning of the concept; related questions about the same concept; and theories or hypotheses about their relationship to the concepts“ (Aday, 1996).

Types of validity

We will discuss different types of validity in this section. The researchers have to address these points while designing a new scale, instrument, or measurement questionnaire. It should be remembered that all the questionnaires and instruments are based on certain theoretical concepts and measure some specific outcomes.

For example, quality of life questionnaire in acne patients should measure various aspects of quality of life (as desired by the researcher). To achieve this, the researcher should ensure that individual items or questions in the questionnaire are framed in such a manner that they actually measure various aspects of quality of life. Furthermore, if the researcher wants to measure different aspects of quality of life (health, social, and economic), then the items should measure that very aspect for which they were designed. For this process, it is important that questionnaire is valid. The different types of validity have been presented below.

Face validity

This is a subjective assessment of the questionnaire or instrument. This assessment is usually done by a subject area expert. After designing the instrument, the researcher should evaluate if the instrument appears appropriate and has relevant items on the “face of it.“. This is called “face validity.“

Content validity

This is also another form of subjective assessment. In this type of evaluation, the researcher assesses whether the items in the questionnaire adequately measure the concepts they are supposed to.

For example, if the item is meant to assess the social problems faced due to acne? Is the question designed to assess social problems? Or does it measure, economic problems? The subject area expert will assess the item and provide the comments to the researcher on the content validity of the questionnaire.

Thus, as discussed face and content validity are often assessed by subject area and research experts.

Criterion validity

It should be remembered that the questionnaire has been designed to measure specific outcomes. Thus, the measurement from this questionnaire should match with the existing standard (often called the “gold standard“).

For example, if we have designed a short scale to assess facial hyperpigmentation, then the results from this scale should match with the results from a standard assessment tool (such as objective assessment using a Colorimeter ® or Mexameter ®).

This validity is called “criterion validity.“ There are two types of criterion validity–“concurrent validity“ and “predictive validity.“

The above example of facial hyperpigmentation scale may be considered as “concurrent validity.“ Another example - we develop a scale to assess the time spent in sun and the study participants have to fill the questionnaire at the end of every week. As a part of the study, all the participants are also fitted with GPS locators (just an example!), and we measure the actual time from this GPS locator. The comparison of the scale and the GPS assessments will be an example of concurrent validity.

Predictive validity scale evaluates a condition in the present and predicts some event in the future. For example, we develop a scale to assess the clinical, demographic, and histological features of patients with psoriasis. They are given a score; based on this score, we would like to predict which patients will develop erythroderma. Of course, this event will be in the future. Thus, this form of validity is predictive validity of the scale.

Construct validity

In this form of validity, the researcher examines the items in the questionnaire with respect to some underlying hypotheses or “construct.“

Sometimes, concepts cannot be measured directly but need to be evaluated using multiple indicators or variables. For instance, pigmentation, hair width, may be assessed objectively using modern techniques. However, other assessments require elaborate questionnaires. Let us consider an example for this - we have to develop a questionnaire to evaluate psychoneurocutaneous conditions. For this questionnaire, we need to include appropriate items/questions in the questionnaire. Usually, these items are based on some underlying hypotheses or constructs. Some of these items/questions may evaluate physical health; some may evaluate mental health, whereas others may assess other forms of stress. It is important that responses to the items that are supposed to evaluate physical health are similar and they should be different from responses to mental health or stress. The former is called “convergent validity, “ and the latter is called “divergent validity.“

This form of validity is assessed using statistical methods such as factor analysis or principal component analysis. These are advanced techniques; hence, the researcher should consult a statistician for these analyses.


   Reliability Top


What is reliability?

If we design a questionnaire to measure a particular concept, then it is important that this questionnaire assesses the same concept over time on repeated testing. Furthermore, the responses and outcomes should be consistent and similar when the questionnaire is used by different researchers. This “stability“ of the questionnaire is called reliability (Aday 1996).

Types of reliability

In the previous section, we have discussed different forms of validity. In this section, we will highlight the different types of reliability and how to assess it.

Test-retest reliability

As discussed earlier, the questionnaire or the instrument should give similar responses when used over time, unless there is an actual change in the outcome. Let us consider the above questionnaire to assess psychocutaneous diseases. We have three different types of questions – those evaluating physical health, mental health, and other forms of stress. If we administer the questionnaire over two time points (with a difference of 1 day), then the responses should be similar (unless there has been a stressful event between these two time points). The agreement between these two responses will represent the test-retest reliability.

It is important that the time between two responses should be appropriate. The difference should not be so large that the change in the response is an actual change in the response. For example, if we are measuring the blood pressure, then the changes over a couple of days may represent an actual change. If the agreement is weak, we should not conclude that the measuring instrument is not “reliable.“ However, when we are assessing physical health or mental health, there should not be major changes in the response over the same time period, unless there has been an acute physical or a mental health event. Thus, in this case, the agreement should be high for questionnaire to be “reliable.“

Intra-rater reliability

The responses to the items in the questionnaire should be similar when the same interviewer administers it at two or more time points. The agreement between these two responses represents the inter-rater reliability.

Inter-rater reliability

The responses to the items in the questionnaire should be similar when two different interviewers administer it. The responses should not depend on the person who is administering the questionnaire. The agreement between these two responses represents the inter-rater reliability.

How do we assess reliability?

These different types of reliability are measured with statistical tests such as Pearson's correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and ICC. Other tests include kappa coefficient, Cronbach's alpha, and Bland and Altman Plots.

A correlation value more than 0.70 is desirable (where 1.00 denotes perfect correlation). However, in some scenarios (particularly when the investigation will influence management), a test-retest reliability of more than 0.90 is required. Similarly, a kappa statistic of 0.61–0.80 is considered substantial agreement, and a value of 0.81–0.99 is considered almost perfect agreement.


   Additional Points Top


Once the questionnaire has been designed, the researcher should pilot test the questionnaire. The items in the questionnaire should be changed based on the feedback from the pilot study participants and the researcher's experience. Some of the changes after the pilot test can change the format or the language of the questions; change the response patterns; remove some questions; or add some new questions or items. After the basic structure of the questionnaire has been finalized, the researcher should assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire or the scale. It is possible that a test with high reliability may have poor validity. Thus, it is important to assess both these aspects for each questionnaire.

The questionnaire can be self administered or interviewer administered. A self-administered questionnaire can be paper based or computer based. The interviewer-administered questionnaire can be face-to-face or over the telephone. In both these scenarios, the researcher has the option to develop a paper- or a computer-based questionnaire. The decision to use a self- or interviewer-administered, paper- or computer-based questionnaire depends on the nature of the questions (individuals may be comfortable answering personal questions in a self-administered questionnaire); literacy levels of the target population; and resources.

If an existing standard questionnaire is translated in the local language, the researcher should assess the reliability and validity of the translated questionnaire. These values should be presented in the manuscript.


   Summary Top


In this section, we have discussed the reliability (test-retest, inter-rater, and intra-rater) and validity (face, content, criterion, and construct) of questionnaires. Once the questionnaire has been designed, the researcher should pilot test the questionnaire. The items in the questionnaire should be changed based on the feedback from the pilot study participants and the researcher's experience. After the basic structure of the questionnaire has been finalized, the researcher should assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire or the scale. The decision to use a self- or interviewer-administered, paper- or computer-based questionnaire depends on the nature of the questions, literacy levels of the target population, and resources.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.




 

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    Abstract
   Introduction
   Examples
   Validity
   Reliability
   Additional Points
   Summary

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