Indian Journal of Dermatology
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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 60  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 103

Multifaceted adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in India: A case series

1 Department of Dermatology, Government Medical College, Calicut, Kerala, India
2 Department of Medicine, Government Medical College, Calicut, Kerala, India
3 Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Calicut, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Anza Khader
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Calicut-673 008, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-5154.147846

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Background : Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). India is considered as a nonendemic region for HTLV-1. Recent upsurge of cases have been noted in southern parts of India. Aims and objectives: The objective was to describe skin manifestations in various types of ATL. Materials and Methods: Clinical examination, blood investigations, skin biopsies, lymph node biopsies, and immunohistochemistry were performed in five patients. Flow cytometry was performed in two cases. Results: Serological testing was positive for HTLV-1 in all patients. All patients presented with skin lesions. Rare presentations of molluscum contagiosum like papules, purpuric macules and plaques, hypopigmented macules and verrucous papules were seen. Dermatophytic infections occurred in two patients. Mucosal lesion was seen in one patient. Histological features include dermal lymphoid infiltrate with or without epidermotropism. Presence of epidermotropism did not correlate with the severity of disease. All patients except one succumbed to illness within few months to 1 year period. Conclusions: ATL manifest in myriad presentations and skin lesions are often the earliest manifestation. Cutaneous manifestations of ATL vary from subtle hypopigmented macules to florid nodular lesions, and HTLV-1 screening need to be carried out in all doubtful cases.

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