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EPIDEMIOLOGY ROUND
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 338-341
Dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in a tribal (Bastar) region of Chhattisgarh, India


1 Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Jagdalpur (CG), India
2 Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Jagdalpur (CG), India
3 Department of Dermatology, Government Medical College, Jagdalpur (CG), India
4 Department of Medicine, Government Medical College, Jagdalpur (CG), India
5 Department of Physiology, Government Medical College, Jagdalpur (CG), India

Date of Web Publication5-Nov-2009

Correspondence Address:
Harminder Singh
Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Jagdalpur (CG)
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0019-5154.57609

PMID: 20101334

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   Abstract 

Background: Cutaneous disorders during HIV infection are numerous and skin is often the first and only organ affected during most of the course of HIV disease. Some Cutaneous disorders reflect the progression of HIV disease; though the relation is still controversial. Aims : The objective of this study, conducted at a tertiary care centre in Bastar, Jagdalpur, is to estimate the status of cutaneous manifestation in HIV-infected patients and its relationship with CD4 cell counts. Methods: We enrolled 137 HIV positive subjects. Demographic information such as age, gender, weight, height, socioeconomic status, and educational status were recorded. Laboratory parameter (CD4 counts) and treatment regimen were noted. Patients were examined for skin disorders by a dermatologist. Data were analyzed using chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: Majority of the patients were from rural area (65.69%) and belonged to a low socioeconomic and educational status. 30.65% of the patients were housewives, 23.35% drivers, and 16.78% labourers. Predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact (94.16%). Most common HIV-related dermatological manifestations were seborrheic dermatitis (74.16%), xerosis (52.5%), generalized skin hyperpigmentation 56 (46.67%), onychomycosis 53 (44.16%), pruritic papular eruption 27 (22.5%), oral candidiasis 21 (17.5%), photo dermatitis 21 (17.5%), and scabies 4 (3.33%). Significant correlation with low CD4+ cell counts was found for oral candidiasis (P < 0.0001) and Kaposi's sarcoma ( P = 0.03), while other disorders such as seborrheic dermatitis ( P = 0.22), xerosis ( P = 0.25), and onychomycosis (P = 0.08) were not statistically significant. Conclusion : This study showed high prevalence of dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected subjects, and they occur more frequently with progression of HIV and decline in immune functions. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of skin disorders can improve the quality of life of HIV-infected subjects.


Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, National Aids Control Organisation, people living with HIV/AIDS


How to cite this article:
Singh H, Singh P, Tiwari P, Dey V, Dulhani N, Singh A. Dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in a tribal (Bastar) region of Chhattisgarh, India. Indian J Dermatol 2009;54:338-41

How to cite this URL:
Singh H, Singh P, Tiwari P, Dey V, Dulhani N, Singh A. Dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care hospital in a tribal (Bastar) region of Chhattisgarh, India. Indian J Dermatol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2014 Jul 31];54:338-41. Available from: http://www.e-ijd.org/text.asp?2009/54/4/338/57609



   Introduction Top


A total of 39.5 million (34.1 million-47.1 million estimated) people were found to be HIV-positive in 2006, [1] this includes the estimated 4.3 million (3.6 million-6.6 million) adults and children who were newly infected with HIV. According to the new, more accurate estimates, the number of people in India living with HIV in 2006 was approximately 2.5 million (2 million-3.1 million) and the adult national HIV prevalence was 0.36%. This confirms that the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is lower than previously estimated. [2] The highest number of PLHA is in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Manipur and Nagaland have the highest prevalence due to small population size. According to the National Aids Control Organization (NACO) 2006, HIV prevalence in Chhattisgarh was 0.17%; it was highest (1.67%) in Manipur and lowest (0.03%) in Himanchal Pradesh. [3] In Chhattisgarh, Durg district has the maximum HIV burden followed by Bastar district. These are categorized as category A and C, respectively. [4]

HIV infection constitutes a major health problem [5],[6],[7] worldwide. Dermatological disorders are health problems among HIV positive patients which present with a variety of manifestations. [8],[9] Skin diseases cause significant morbidity and may be initial signs of immunosuppression. [10] They affect between 80 and 95% of HIV-infected patients, [11],[12] occurring at any time in the course of infection. Skin is often the first and only organ affected during most of the course of HIV disease. [11],[13],[14] Cutaneous disorders during HIV infection are numerous. [15],[16] Some Cutaneous disorders reflect the progression of HIV disease, [13],[15] but this relation is still controversial. [16],[17] Extensive HIV-related literature has focused on distinctive clinical presentations such as Kaposi's sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, and oral candidiasis. [15],[17] However, the findings on careful skin examination of HIV infected patients who present for primary care have received limited attention. Here, we describe systematic dermatological manifestations of HIV infected patients on initial presentation.


   Materials and Methods Top


This is a prospective study, which was conducted in Govt. Medical College and associated Maharani Hospital, Jagdalpur (Chhattisgarh) between January 2006 and June 2008. Patient's date were collected from OPD, in ward, and from counseling center, and all participants testing positive for HIV at screening were enrolled for ongoing study. There were no specific eligibility criteria. All HIV positive patients who accessed care at hospital were included. Information on demographics, that is, age, sex, height, weight, socioeconomic and educational status, laboratory parameters (CD4+ counts) and treatment regime were noted. A complete medical history and physical examination of patients were done by a dermatologist for optimal evaluation and diagnosis of dermatologic lesions on the basis of clinical appearance. Data were analyzed, using the chi square test for establishing correlation between CD4+ cell counts and various dermatological disorders, P0 value < 0.05 was considered to be clinically significant.


   Results Top


A total of 137 HIV-infected patients were enrolled in the present study and the following observations were made [Table 1],[Table 2],[Table 3],[Table 4].

Among 137 HIV patients, 83 (60.58%) were males and 54 (39.41%) were females. Of these, most patients, 54 (39.41%), were in 30-39 years age group (19 females and 35 males), while female prevalence was highest (18.97%) in the age group of 20-29 years. The majority of patients (90, i.e., 65.69%) were residents of rural areas. Of these sufferers, 79.56% belonged to lower socioeconomic status; only 1.45% were from high socioeconomic status. Regarding the occupations of the subjects, the largest group were constituted by house wives (30.65%), followed by drivers 32 (23.35%) and labourers 23 (16.78%). The majority of patients were of poor educational status, 37 (27%) educated only upto fifth standard and 36 (26.27%) upto high school, while 22 (16.05%) were illiterate. A total of 131 (95.62%) subjects were Hindus, the remainder from other religions. The predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact (94.16%), only 1 patient (0.72%) was infected through transfusion of infected blood, 7 (5.10%) patients acquired infection via vertical (mother to child) transmission. There was no history of intra venous drug abuse and homosexuality. A total of 68 (49.63%) patients had recent CD4+ cell count, among them 23 (16.78%) had counts less than 250/μl and 45 (32.84%) had more than 250/μl. Most common HIV-related dermatological manifestations were seborrheic dermatitis 89 (74.16%), xerosis 63 (52.5%), generalized skin hyperpigmentation 56 (46.67%), onychomycosis 53 (44.16%), pruritic papular eruption 27 (22.5%), oral candidiasis 21 (17.5%), photo dermatitis 21 (17.5%), and scabies 4 (3.33%). Statistically significant correlation with low CD4+ cell counts was found for oral candidiasis ( P < 0.0001) and Kaposi's sarcoma ( P= 0.03); it was insignificant for other disorders such as seborrheic dermatitis ( P = 0.22), xerosis ( P = 0.25), and onychomycosis ( P = 0.08).


   Discussion Top


The dermatological manifestations in HIV patients, including many opportunistic infections, are very common. [8],[9] Results

of the present study showed several facts about HIV in the tribal population of Bastar. The majority (90%) of the infected patients belonged to rural areas and belonged to lower socioeconomic strata (79.6%), with income less than Rs. 1500 per month. This indicates poor nutritional status, which itself can accelerate the progression of HIV. A total of 95.62% subjects were Hindus, probably due to high density of tribal Hindu population in this area. The predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contacts (94.16%); unlike the results of other study, [18] where it has been reported that the modes of transmission was 35.3% homosexual, 27.8% intravenous drug use, and 24.4% heterosexual.

This study was mainly focused on the dermatological manifestations of HIV positive patients attending a tertiary care center (Government Medical College and Maharani Hospital, Jagdalpur) for treatment. We found 87.6% prevalence of dermatological disorders, which is high, similar to the findings of Jeffrey et al. [19] (86%) and Pitche et al. [20] (82.5%). Goodman et al., [16] reported higher prevalence, whereas a south western France study [18] showed that it is relatively lower (65.3%). Seborrheic dermatitis (74.16%) was the most common dermatological disorder according to our study, which is consistent with other studies [16],[21] where seborrheic dermatitis and candidiasis were the most common findings. A study [19] reported dermatophytosis as the most common manifestation. The other frequent dermatologic manifestations in the present study were xerosis (52.5%) and generalized hyperpigmentation of skin (46.67%), the figures being much higher than the previously reported studies [18],[19] showing 9.8% and 10.4% and 12%, respectively. Other common manifestation was onychomycosis (44.16%), which was considerably higher than the result of similar study in South Western France (1.8%). The dermatological manifestations increase both in frequency and severity with the progression of HIV and decline in CD4+ cell counts. There was significantly high occurrence of oral candidiasis (P < 0.0001), which was similar to many previous studies [18],[22],[23] and Kaposi sarcoma (P < 0.03) among patients with low CD4+ counts (below 200/μl). We used diagnostic technique of clinical evaluation by a dermatologist rather than biopsy or scrapings for dermatological disorders. Although we followed stringent criteria and took all precautions to eliminate human errors, there might have been a possibility in few cases of misdiagnosis.


   Conclusion Top


We conclude that the main mode of transmission of HIV in the tribal region was heterosexual contact; a critical factor facilitating infections is illiteracy/lack of knowledge and information regarding modes of spread of HIV. The dermatological manifestations have high prevalence among HIV positive subjects; of these, oral candidiasis and Kaposi's sarcoma are significantly correlated with low CD4+ counts. This may provide a clue to the diagnosis of HIV in patients reporting to the health providers, primarily for dermatological manifestations known to be associated with decline in immune function. Thus, patients with such skin complaints may be motivated to report for voluntary counseling and treatment. This also reiterates the need for thorough skin examination in HIV positive patients, and provision of optimal medical care to these patients. Health education and information provided to people in these tribal areas so far has been insufficient and inadequate regarding modes of transmission and methods of prevention of HIV. This statement is especially true for people from lower socioeconomic strata and low educational status, which is an important result emphasized in our study.


   Acknowledgement Top


The authors would like to thank Dr. SL Adile, Nodal Officer, and Director Medical Education for all his support and guidance. We shall also like to thank Dr. CS Kantarajan, Dean Government Medical College, Jagdalpur (CG), Dr. RR Sahni, Deputy Director, Health Services, Government of Chhattisgarh.

 
   References Top

1.UNAlDS, WHO (2006), AIDS epidemic update, Dec. 2006.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.ASIA AIDS epidemic update Regional Summary Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organization (WHO) 2008. Available from: http://data.unaids.org/pub/Press Release /2008. [cited in 2008].  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Estimated Adult HIV Prevalence, State-wise, India, 2006 HIV Sentinel Surveillance and HIV Estimation, 2006. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India. Available from: http://www.nacoonline.org/NACO. [cited in 2008].  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Categorisation of Districts based on HIV Sentinel Surveillance 2004, 2005 and 2006_Detailed List National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India, Available from: http://www.nacoonline.org/NACO. [cited in 2008].  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Bravo IM, Correnti M, Escalona L, Perrone M, Brito A, Tovar V, et al. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV patients related to CD4 cell count and viral load in a Venezuelan population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2006; 11:E1-5.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Ranganathan K, Umadevi M, Saraswathi TR, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S, Johnson N. Oral lesions and conditions associated with Human Immu-nodeficiency Virus infection in 1000 South Indian patients. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2004;33:37-42.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
7.Moniaci D, Greco D, Flecchia G, Raitieri R, Sinicco A. Epidemiology, clinical features and prognostic value of HIV-1 related oral lesions. J Oral Pathol Med 1990;19:477-81.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Wiwanitkit V. Prevalence of dermatological disorders in Thai HIV-infected patients correlated with different CD4 lymphocyte count statuses: A note on 120 cases. Int J Dermatol 2004;43:265-8.  Back to cited text no. 8  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
9.Kumarasamy N, Solomon S, Madhivanan P, Ravikumar B, Thyagarajan SP, Yesudian P. Dermatologic manifestations among human immunodeficiency virus patients in south India. Int J Dermatol 2000;39:192-5.  Back to cited text no. 9  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
10.Coopman SA, Johnson RA, Platt R, Stern R. Cutaneous disease and drug reactions in HIV Infection. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1670-4.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Tschachler E, Bergstresser PR, Sting lG. HIV-related skin diseases. Lancet 1996;348:659-63.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Uthayakumar S, Nandwani R, Drinkwater T, Nayagam AT, Darley CR. The prevalence of skin disease in HIV infection and its relationship to the degree of immunosuppression. Br J Dermatol 1997;137:595-8.  Back to cited text no. 12  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
13.Goldstein B, Berman B, Sukeni kE, Frankel SJ. Correlation of skin disorders with CD4 lymphocyte counts in patients with HIV/AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;36:262-4.  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Smith KJ, Skelton HG,Yeager J. Cutaneous findings in HIV -1 positive patients: A 42-month prospective study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994;31:746-54.  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Coopman SA, Johnson RA, Platt R, Stern RS. Cutaneous disease and drug reactions in HIV infection. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1670-4.  Back to cited text no. 15  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
16.Goodman DS, Teplitz ED, Wishner A. Prevalence of Cutaneous disease in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987;17:210-20.  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Coldiron BM, Bergstresser PR. Prevalence and clinical spectrum of skin disease in Patients infected with HIV. Arch Dermatol 1989;125:357-61.  Back to cited text no. 17  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
18.Spira R, Mignard M, Doutre MS. Prevalence of cutaneous disorders in a population of HIV-infected patients. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1208-12.  Back to cited text no. 18      
19.Jeffrey HS, Muz P, Cabral P, Jhamb K. Dermatological manifestations in HIV-infected patients. Mayo Clin Proc 1999;74:658-60.  Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Pitche P, Tchangai-Walla K, Napo-Koura G. Prevalence of skin disease in AIDS patients in the Lome-Tokoin Teaching Hospital of Togo [in French]. Sante 1995;5:349-52.  Back to cited text no. 20      
21.Coldiron BM, Bergstresser PR. Prevalence and clinical spectrum of skin disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol 1989;125:357-61.  Back to cited text no. 21  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
22.Kolokotronis A, Kioses V, Antoniades D, Mandraveli K, Doutsos I. Immunologic status in patients infected with HIV with oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994;78:41-6.  Back to cited text no. 22      
23.Klein RS, Harris CA, Small CB, Moll B, Lesser M. Oral candidiasis in high-risk patients as the initial manifestation of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1984; 311:354-8.  Back to cited text no. 23      



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

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    Abstract
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    Results
    Discussion
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