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CONCISE COMMUNICATION
Year : 2006  |  Volume : 51  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 149-150
Pattern of skin diseases in Imphal


Department of Dermatology Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Imphal, India

Correspondence Address:
Th. Bijayanti Devi
C/o Dr. H. Manihar Singh, Yaiskul Chingakham Leikai, Imphal - 795001
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-5154.26943

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   Abstract 

Background and Aims: It is generally agreed that the pattern of skin diseases differs in different countries, and within various regions of a country depending on social, economic, racial and environmental factors. Many workers have reported various patterns of skin diseases in different parts of India. So far no such report is available for this border state of North East India. To fill the lacunae we decided to undertake a retrospective study of the skin disease pattern in this premier hospital of Manipur. Materials and Methods: All the newly diagnosed cases attending the OPD of Dermatology and Venereology, RIMS Hospital Imphal, during the period of 2 years starting from 1st January 1999 to 31st December, 2000 were included in the study. Diagnosis was done on clinical grounds and laboratory investigations were done whenever required. Results: Eczema (17.48%), fungal infections (17.19%), pyodermas (9.10%) and scabies (8.97%) were the major skin diseases. STD's accounted for (3.60%) of the cases. Genodermatoses (0.01%) formed the minimal number of cases. Conclusion: Eczema was the commonest group of disorders. Out of the infective skin disorders fungal infections were the commonest group. Genodermatoses formed the least number of cases.


Keywords: Pattern of skin diseases, Infective skin diseases, Non-infective skin diseases


How to cite this article:
Devi T, Zamzachin G. Pattern of skin diseases in Imphal. Indian J Dermatol 2006;51:149-50

How to cite this URL:
Devi T, Zamzachin G. Pattern of skin diseases in Imphal. Indian J Dermatol [serial online] 2006 [cited 2019 Nov 13];51:149-50. Available from: http://www.e-ijd.org/text.asp?2006/51/2/149/26943



   Introduction Top


Dermatological diseases form an important chunk of disorders in any major hospital. Skin diseases are also influenced by various factors like environment, economy, literacy, racial and social customs. The pattern of skin diseases varies from one country to another country and in various regions within the same country.[1] It is more so in India where climate, socio-economic status, religions and customs are widely varied in different parts of the country. There are some reports regarding the pattern of skin diseases from various parts of India.[2],[3],[4] Occasionally skin diseases can be a manifestation of systemic diseases. Moreover, the skin is an important target organ for HIV infection. As the pattern of skin diseases varies in different parts of India we decided to undertake a retrospective analysis of the skin disease pattern as observed in Imphal.


   Materials and Methods Top


All the newly diagnosed cases attending the OPD of Dermatology and Venereology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) Hospital, Imphal, during the period of two years starting from 1st January, 1999 to 31st December 2000 were included in the study. The skin diseases were grouped into infective skin diseases and non-infective skin diseases. Cases with doubtful diagnosis were excluded from the study. Diagnosis was made on clinical grounds and laboratory investigations were done whenever required.


   Results Top


The total number of patients who attended various out patient departments of RIMS hospital during the study period from Jan. 1999 to Dec. 2000 was 451560. Number of new dermatological cases were 29,663 thus forming 6.56% of the total no. of cases. The number of cases and percentage of infective and non-infective diseases are given in [Table - 1]. Eczema emerged as the commonest group of disorders (17.48%) followed by fungal infections (17.19%), pyodermas (9.10%) and scabies (8.97%) Dermatophytosis (13.82%) was the commonest fungal infection followed by Pityriasis versicolor (3%), Candidiasis (0.33%) and deep mycosis (0.02%).

Acne vulgaris (6.06%), urticaria (5.68%) and viral infections (3.78%) where the other major disorders. Hansen's disease and tuberculosis of skin formed 0.04% each of the total cases. Vesiculo-bullous disorders formed only 0.09% of the cases, out of which pemphigus vulgaris (0.07%) was comoonest followed by bullous pemphigoid (0.02%. Of the systemic collagen disorders (0.26%); CDLE (0.24%) was commonest followed by SLE (0.01%), Systemic sclerosis (0.01%) and morphoea (0.01%).


   Discussion Top


In this study Eczema emerged as the single largest group of disorders. Similar findings are also reported by other workers.[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7]

Fungal infections were the second largest group of disorders. The warm and highly humid climate of the state may account for the high incidence of fungal infections.

The high incidences of Pyodermas and Parasitic infections in our study may be due to the low socio-economic status of such patients, more so in children belonging to rural areas. The scarcity of clean water may act as a contributory factor in this regard. In studies conducted in Delhi[8] and Himachal Pradesh[9] too, these were the commonest dermatoses.

The incidence of viral infection was relatively low (3.78%) in our study as compared to similar studies done in Kashmir[5] (14.0%), Trivandrum[6] (5.10%) and Pune[10] (7.1%). Herpes zoster (1.41%) was the commonest viral infection. The non representation of viral exanthems in our study may be because such patients mainly consult the physician. The low incidence of Hansen's disease in this study (0.04%) is due to the fact that such patients mainly attend leprosy centers where the medicines (MDT) are given free of cost. The low incidence of STD's (3.60%) may be because such patients preferred to attend private clinics due to the social stigma associated with the disease.

Some studies have shown that the incidence of drug reaction necessitating hospital admission ranges from 3-8%.[11] Even though drugs are frequently used for common ailments and over the counter prescriptions are on the rise, the incidence of drug reactions in our study is only 0.42%.

The incidence of melasma was 2.57%. Many melasma patients in our study had associated symptoms of gastritis/PUS. A study in this direction may be interesting.


   Acknowledgement Top


We are grateful to the Medical Superintendent, RIMS Hospital, Imphal, for allowing us to use the hospital records.

 
   References Top

1.Rook A, Savin JA, Wilkinson DS. The Prevalence, incidence and ecology of diseases of skin, In : Rook A. Wilkinson DS, Ebling FJ, Champion RH, Burton JL, editors, Text book of Dermatology. Oxford University Press: Mumbai 1987. p. 39-53.   Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Mehta TK. Pattern of skin diseases in India. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1962;28:134-9.   Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Gangadharan C, Joseph A, Sarojini PA. Pattern of skin diseases in Kerala. Indian J Dermatol Venereol leprol 1976;42:49-51.   Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Dayal SG, Gupta GP. A cross section of skin diseases in Bundelkhand region, UP. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1977;43:258-61.   Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Jaiswal AK, Singh Gurmail. Pattern of skin diseases in Kashmir region of India. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1999;65:258-60.   Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Nair S Pradeep, Nair TV. Gopala Krishnan. Pattern of dermatological diseases in Trivandrum. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1999;65:261-3.   Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Kuruvilla M, Sridhar KS, Kumar P, Rao SG. Pattern of skin diseases in Bantwal Taluq, Dakshina Kannada. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2000;66:247-8.   Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Karanti BK. Pattern of skin diseases in a semi-urban community of Delhi. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1984;50:213-4.   Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Sharma NL, Sharma RC. Prevalence of dermatological diseases in school children of a high altitude tribal area of Himachal Pradesh. Indian J Dermatol Venereol leprol 1990;56:375-6.   Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Sayal SK, Das AL, Gupta CM. Pattern of skin diseases among civil population and armed forces personnel at Pune. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1997;63:29-32.   Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Black AJ, Somers K. Drug related illness resulting in hospital admission. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1984;18:40-1.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]  


    Tables

[Table - 1]

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    Abstract
    Introduction
    Materials and Me...
    Results
    Discussion
    Acknowledgement
    References
    Article Tables

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